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Clostridioides difficile epidemiology in India

Monaghan, Tanya M.; Biswas, Rima; Satav, Ashish; Ambalkar, Shrikant; Kashyap, Rajpal Singh

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Clinical Associate Professor in Luminal Gastroenterology

Rima Biswas

Ashish Satav

Shrikant Ambalkar

Rajpal Singh Kashyap


Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) continues to affect hospitalized patients and community populations worldwide. In contrast to the substantial resources invested in the diagnosis and prevention of CDI in high-income countries, this anaerobic toxigenic bacterium has been largely overlooked in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) such as India, where there remains a paucity of epidemiologic data evaluating the burden of CDI. Extensive multi-institutional studies describing C. difficile epidemiology in India have not yet been performed. Given recent economic growth in many Asian countries, with aging populations, increased access to healthcare and widespread inappropriate use of antimicrobials, C. difficile is likely to be highly prevalent and causing significant disease burden. Greater efforts are required to enhance awareness of this neglected pathogen, through educating healthcare practitioners to test for CDI. There is also an urgent need to strengthen laboratory capacity, and ideally establish a national reference laboratory, to help facilitate a greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of CDI in India and other LMICs.

This mini-review aims to summarize the existing research evaluating the burden of CDI in humans and the environment in India.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Jan 14, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 19, 2022
Publication Date 2022-04
Deposit Date Jan 18, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 20, 2023
Journal Anaerobe
Print ISSN 1075-9964
Electronic ISSN 1095-8274
Publisher Elsevier BV
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 74
Article Number 102517
Keywords Antibiotic-associated diarrhea; Clostridioides difficile; C. difficile infection; epidemiology; India
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