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The influence of printing parameters on multi-material two-photon polymerisation based micro additive manufacturing

Hu, Qin; Rance, Graham A.; Trindade, Gustavo F.; Pervan, David; Jiang, Long; Foerster, Aleksandra; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Tuck, Christopher; Irvine, Derek J.; Hague, Richard; Wildman, Ricky D.


Qin Hu

Gustavo F. Trindade

David Pervan

Surface Analytical Officer

Professor of Materials Chemistry

Professor of Additive Manufacturing

Professor of Multiphase Flow and Mechanics


Two-photon polymerisation (2PP) based additive manufacturing has emerged as a powerful technology to fabricate complex three-dimensional micro- and nanoscale architectures. However, a comprehensive understanding of the effect of printing parameters on the functional properties of these structures is needed to unleash the potential of 2PP and enable controlled deposition / integration of various materials into multi-material structures. In this study we investigate the correlation between printing parameters, resin composition and the final properties of 2PP structures fabricated with different monomers and initiators. The link between 2PP process and final material properties is validated by morphological studies, vibrational spectroscopy and advanced mass spectrometry, ToF-SIMS, imaging. We establish empirical relationships between printing parameters and mechanical properties, and achieve controlled deposition of different monomers with high precision and uniform composition. The approaches developed here are successfully used to demonstrate multi-material 2PP and produce complex 3D architectures incorporating three polymers. The 2PP structures produced can be transferred into solution or onto different substrates, in addition to direct fabrication on flexible substrates. This work advances the understanding of the 2PP process, which enable rational design and manufacture of complex geometries and additive manufacturing of nanoscale multi-material structures.


Hu, Q., Rance, G. A., Trindade, G. F., Pervan, D., Jiang, L., Foerster, A., …Wildman, R. D. (2022). The influence of printing parameters on multi-material two-photon polymerisation based micro additive manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing, 51, Article 102575.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 19, 2021
Online Publication Date Dec 23, 2021
Publication Date Mar 1, 2022
Deposit Date Jan 13, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 13, 2022
Journal Additive Manufacturing
Print ISSN 2214-7810
Electronic ISSN 2214-8604
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 51
Article Number 102575
Keywords Two-photon polymerisation; Printing parameters; Micro additive manufacturing; Multi-material printing
Public URL
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