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Laser Doppler blood flow imaging using a CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing

He, Diwei; Nguyen, Hoang C.; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R.; Zhu, Yiqun; Crowe, John A.; Gill, Cally; Clough, Geraldine F.; Morgan, Stephen P.

Authors

Diwei He

Hoang C. Nguyen

Barrie R. Hayes-Gill

Yiqun Zhu

John A. Crowe John.Crowe@nottingham.ac.uk

Cally Gill

Geraldine F. Clough

Stephen P. Morgan steve.morgan@nottingham.ac.uk



Abstract

The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Sep 18, 2013
Journal Sensors
Electronic ISSN 1424-8220
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 9
APA6 Citation He, D., Nguyen, H. C., Hayes-Gill, B. R., Zhu, Y., Crowe, J. A., Gill, C., …Morgan, S. P. (2013). Laser Doppler blood flow imaging using a CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing. Sensors, 13(9), doi:10.3390/s130912632
DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/s130912632
Publisher URL http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/13/9/12632
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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