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Vacuum bubble collisions: From microphysics to gravitational waves

Gould, Oliver; Sukuvaara, Satumaaria; Weir, David

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Satumaaria Sukuvaara

David Weir


We comprehensively study the effects of bubble wall thickness and speed on the gravitational wave emission spectrum of collisions of two vacuum bubbles. We numerically simulate a large dynamical range, making use of symmetry to reduce the dimensionality. The high-frequency slope of the gravitational wave spectrum is shown to depend on the thickness of the bubble wall, becoming steeper for thick-wall bubbles, in agreement with recent fully 3+1 dimensional lattice simulations of many-bubble collisions. This dependence is present, even for highly relativistic bubble wall collisions. We use the reduced dimensionality as an opportunity to investigate dynamical phenomena which may underlie the observed differences in the gravitational wave spectra. These phenomena include “trapping,” which occurs most for thin-wall bubbles, and oscillations behind the bubble wall, which occur for thick-wall bubbles.


Gould, O., Sukuvaara, S., & Weir, D. (2021). Vacuum bubble collisions: From microphysics to gravitational waves. Physical Review D, 104(7), Article 075039.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 28, 2021
Online Publication Date Oct 28, 2021
Publication Date Oct 28, 2021
Deposit Date Jan 13, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 9, 2022
Journal Physical Review D
Print ISSN 2470-0010
Electronic ISSN 2470-0029
Publisher American Physical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 104
Issue 7
Article Number 075039
Public URL
Publisher URL


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