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Inter-Flake Quantum Transport of Electrons and Holes in Inkjet-Printed Graphene Devices

Wang, Feiran; Gosling, Jonathan H; Rance, Graham A; Trindade, Gustavo F; Makarovsky, Oleg; Cottam, Nathan D; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar; Balanov, Alexander G; Greenaway, Mark T; Wildman, Ricky D.; Hague, Richard; Tuck, Christopher; Fromhold, T. Mark; Turyanska, Lyudmila


Jonathan H Gosling

Nathan D Cottam

Alexander G Balanov

Mark T Greenaway

Professor of Multiphase Flow and Mechanics

Professor of Additive Manufacturing


© 2020 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH 2D materials have unique structural and electronic properties with potential for transformative device applications. However, such devices are usually bespoke structures made by sequential deposition of exfoliated 2D layers. There is a need for scalable manufacturing techniques capable of producing high-quality large-area devices comprising multiple 2D materials. Additive manufacturing with inks containing 2D material flakes is a promising solution. Inkjet-printed devices incorporating 2D materials have been demonstrated, however there is a need for greater understanding of quantum transport phenomena as well as their structural properties. Experimental and theoretical studies of inkjet-printed graphene structures are presented. Detailed electrical and structural characterization is reported and explained by comparison with transport modeling that include inter-flake quantum tunneling transport and percolation dynamics. The results reveal that the electrical properties are strongly influenced by the flakes packing fraction and by complex meandering electron trajectories, which traverse several printed layers. Controlling these trajectories is essential for printing high-quality devices that exploit the properties of 2D materials. Inkjet-printed graphene is used to make a field effect transistor and Ohmic contacts on an InSe phototransistor. This is the first time that inkjet-printed graphene has successfully replaced single layer graphene as a contact material for 2D metal chalcogenides.


Wang, F., Gosling, J. H., Rance, G. A., Trindade, G. F., Makarovsky, O., Cottam, N. D., …Turyanska, L. (2021). Inter-Flake Quantum Transport of Electrons and Holes in Inkjet-Printed Graphene Devices. Advanced Functional Materials, 31(5),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 9, 2020
Online Publication Date Oct 26, 2020
Publication Date Jan 27, 2021
Deposit Date Oct 14, 2020
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2021
Journal Advanced Functional Materials
Print ISSN 1616-301X
Electronic ISSN 1616-3028
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 31
Issue 5
Article Number 2007478
Keywords graphene; inkjet printing; Monte Carlo simulations; field effect transistor; percolation dynamics
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Wang, F., Gosling, J. H., Trindade, G. F., Rance, G. A., Makarovsky, O., Cottam, N. D., Kudrynskyi, Z., Balanov, A. G., Greenaway, M. T., Wildman, R. D., Hague, R., Tuck, C., Fromhold, T. M., & Turyanska, L. (2020). Inter‐Flake Quantum Transport of Electrons and Holes in Inkjet‐Printed Graphene Devices. Advanced Functional Materials, 2007478, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.