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Closed Loop Force Control of In-Situ Machining Robots using Audible Sound Features

Alatorre, David; Rabani, Amir; Axinte, Dragos; Branson, David T.


David Alatorre

Amir Rabani

Professor of Manufacturing Engineering

Professor of Dynamics and Control


Detecting, measuring and controlling the forces between cutting tools and machined components is essential in circumstances where direct position control (e.g. depth of cut, feed speed, etc.) is inaccurate and/or impossible. This paper explores the use of airborne sound signals that result from the machining process to control the cutting force in closed loop for generating accurate machined features when performing in-situ robotic repair of complex installations. The sound signals during indentation at various cutting forces are analysed and used to calibrate a remotely mounted microphone sensor and signal processing control system. The power spectral density of the audible sound is used to estimate tool cutting force and the sound intensity used in turn to estimate the resulting process energy. The described controller uses intensity of sound to mitigate the e_ects of resonance with workpiece natural frequencies while controlling the spindle velocity of the tool based on the dominant audible frequency. The performance of the controller is validated using a representative test rig and demonstrated using a robotic arm to machine thin Ni-Cr-Co alloy cantilever beams with a miniature air-driven grinding tool. Results from the test rig show that such a sound-based control approach can achieve consistent cutting forces with an accuracy of 0.08 N. The robot arm is shown to be capable of grinding features of consistent depth (to within 0.05 mm) on beams with surface defects of unde_ned shape using only the sound of the process for closed loop force control.


Alatorre, D., Rabani, A., Axinte, D., & Branson, D. T. (2020). Closed Loop Force Control of In-Situ Machining Robots using Audible Sound Features. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 136, Article 106517.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 9, 2019
Online Publication Date Nov 30, 2019
Publication Date 2020-02
Deposit Date Nov 27, 2019
Publicly Available Date Dec 1, 2020
Journal Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing
Print ISSN 0888-3270
Electronic ISSN 1096-1216
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 136
Article Number 106517
Keywords Force control, Machining, Aircraft maintenance, Airborne sound, Power Spectral
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: Closed loop force control of in-situ machining robots using audible sound features; Journal Title: Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version:; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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