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Immobilized Enzymes on Gold Nanoparticles: From Enhanced Stability to Cleaning of Heritage Textiles

Gherardi, Francesca; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Ferrari, Enrico; Weston, Nicola; Fay, Michael W.; Colston, Belinda Jayne


Francesca Gherardi

Enrico Ferrari

Nicola Weston

Belinda Jayne Colston


Enzyme-based treatments are used in heritage conservation for the effective removal of glues and other damaging organic layers from the surfaces of historic and artistic works. Despite their potential, however, the application of enzymatic treatments is currently limited because of their poor efficiency and low operational and environmental stability. We demonstrate the use of α-amylase immobilized on gold nanoparticles to improve the efficacy of enzymatic treatments enhancing both the reactivity and the stability of the formulations. Gold nanoparticles coated with α-amylase exhibit significant advantages compared to free enzymes. We report up to 5× greater resistance to environmental changes, up to 2× higher efficacy toward removal of starch-based glues from textiles and deeper penetration through the fibers, without causing damage or inducing salt precipitation. These results offer exciting prospects for the development of enzymatic formulations, both for heritage conservation and the wider application of enzymes, such as in medicine, the detergent industry, and green chemistry.


Gherardi, F., Turyanska, L., Ferrari, E., Weston, N., Fay, M. W., & Colston, B. J. (2019). Immobilized Enzymes on Gold Nanoparticles: From Enhanced Stability to Cleaning of Heritage Textiles. ACS Applied Bio Materials, 2(11), 5136-5143.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 20, 2019
Online Publication Date Oct 21, 2019
Publication Date Nov 18, 2019
Deposit Date Oct 25, 2019
Publicly Available Date Oct 22, 2020
Journal ACS Applied Bio Materials
Print ISSN 2576-6422
Electronic ISSN 2576-6422
Publisher American Chemical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 2
Issue 11
Pages 5136-5143
Keywords Gold nanoparticles; Amylase; Textiles; Starch cleaning; Cultural heritage
Public URL
Publisher URL


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