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Numerical Simulation of a Scanning Illumination System for Deep Tissue Fluorescence Imaging

Zhang, Qimei; Grabowska, Anna M.; Clarke, Philip A.; Morgan, Stephen P.


Qimei Zhang

Professor of Cancer Microenvironment

Philip A. Clarke


he spatial resolution and light detected in fluorescence imaging for small animals are limited by light scattering, absorption and autofluorescence. To address this, novel near-infrared fluorescent contrast agents and imaging configurations have been investigated. In this paper, the influence of the light wavelength and imaging configurations (full-field illumination system and scanning system) on fluorescence imaging are compared quantitatively. The surface radiance for both systems is calculated by modifying the simulation tool Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Spectral Tomography. Fluorescent targets are embedded within a scattering medium at different positions. The surface radiance and spatial resolution are obtained for emission wavelengths between 620 nm and 1000 nm. It was found that the spatial resolution of the scanning system is independent of the tissue optical properties, whereas for full-field illumination, the spatial resolution degrades at longer wavelength. The full width at half maximum obtained by the scanning system is 25% lower than that obtained by the full-field illumination system when the targets are located in the middle of the phantom. The results indicate that although imaging at near-infrared wavelength can achieve a higher surface radiance, it may produce worse spatial resolution.


Zhang, Q., Grabowska, A. M., Clarke, P. A., & Morgan, S. P. (2019). Numerical Simulation of a Scanning Illumination System for Deep Tissue Fluorescence Imaging. Journal of Imaging, 5(11),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 20, 2019
Online Publication Date Oct 24, 2019
Publication Date 2019-11
Deposit Date Oct 25, 2019
Publicly Available Date Oct 25, 2019
Journal Journal of Imaging
Print ISSN 2313-433X
Electronic ISSN 2313-433X
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 5
Issue 11
Article Number 83
Public URL
Publisher URL


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