Academia, and economics in particular, faces increased scrutiny because of gender imbalance. This paper studies the job market for entry-level faculty positions. We employ machine learning methods to analyze gendered patterns in the text of 12,000 reference letters written in support of over 3,700 candidates. Using both supervised and unsupervised techniques, we document widespread differences in the attributes emphasized. Women are systematically more likely to be described using 'grindstone' terms and at times less likely to be praised for their ability. Using information on initial placement we highlight the implications of these gendered descriptors for the quality of academic placement.
Eberhardt, M., Facchini, G., & Rueda, V. (2023). Gender Differences in Reference Letters: Evidence from the Economics Job Market. Economic Journal, https://doi.org/10.1093/ej/uead045