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T1 based oxygen-enhanced MRI in tumours; a scoping review of current research

McCabe, Alastair; Martin, Stewart; Shah, Jagrit; Morgan, Paul S; Panek, Rafal


Alastair McCabe

Professor of Cancer and Radiation Biology

Jagrit Shah

Chair in Medical Physics

Rafal Panek


OBJECTIVE: Oxygen-enhanced MRI (OE-MRI) or tissue oxygen-level dependent (TOLD) MRI is an imaging technique under investigation for its ability to quantify and map oxygen distributions within tumours. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the research into OE-MRI for characterising hypoxia in solid tumours. METHODS: A scoping review of published literature was performed on the PubMed and Web of Science databases for articles published before 27 May 2022. Studies imaging solid tumours using proton-MRI to measure oxygen-induced T1/R1 relaxation time/rate changes were included. Grey literature was searched from conference abstracts and active clinical trials. RESULTS: 49 unique records met the inclusion criteria consisting of 34 journal articles and 15 conference abstracts. The majority of articles were pre-clinical studies (31 articles) with 15 human only studies. Pre-clinical studies in a range of tumour types demonstrated consistent correlation of OE-MRI with alternative hypoxia measurements. No clear consensus on optimal acquisition technique or analysis methodology was found. No prospective, adequately powered, multicentre clinical studies relating OE-MRI hypoxia markers to patient outcomes were identified. CONCLUSION: There is good pre-clinical evidence of the utility of OE-MRI in tumour hypoxia assessment; however, there are significant gaps in clinical research that need to be addressed to develop OE-MRI into a clinically applicable tumour hypoxia imaging technique. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The evidence base of OE-MRI in tumour hypoxia assessment is presented along with a summary of the research gaps to be addressed to transform OE-MRI derived parameters into tumour hypoxia biomarkers.


McCabe, A., Martin, S., Shah, J., Morgan, P. S., & Panek, R. (2023). T1 based oxygen-enhanced MRI in tumours; a scoping review of current research. British Journal of Radiology, 96(1146), Article 20220624.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 7, 2023
Online Publication Date Mar 3, 2023
Publication Date Jun 1, 2023
Deposit Date Mar 8, 2023
Publicly Available Date Mar 8, 2023
Journal The British Journal of Radiology
Print ISSN 0007-1285
Electronic ISSN 1748-880X
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 96
Issue 1146
Article Number 20220624
Keywords Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging, General Medicine
Public URL
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