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Deep Feature and Domain Knowledge Fusion Network for Mapping Surface Water Bodies by Fusing Google Earth RGB and Sentinel-2 images

Zhou, Pu; Li, Xiaodong; Foody, Giles M.; Boyd, Doreen S.; Wang, Xia; Ling, Feng; Zhang, Yihang; Wang, Yalan; Du, Yun

Deep Feature and Domain Knowledge Fusion Network for Mapping Surface Water Bodies by Fusing Google Earth RGB and Sentinel-2 images Thumbnail


Pu Zhou

Xiaodong Li

Professor of Geographical Information

Professor of Earth Observation

Xia Wang

Feng Ling

Yihang Zhang

Yalan Wang

Yun Du


Mapping surface water bodies from fine spatial resolution optical remote sensing imagery is essential for the understanding of the global hydrologic cycle. Although satellite data are useful for mapping, the limited spectral information captured by some satellite systems can be sub-optimal for the task. For example, the very high resolution images of Google Earth (GE) only contain RGB bands, which often means many water bodies and land objects are confused. Sentinel-2 (S2) imagery have a spectral resolution more suitable for mapping water bodies, but its medium spatial resolution limits the ability for detailed mapping of water-land boundaries. This letter proposes a deep feature and domain knowledge fusion network (DFDKFNet) for mapping surface water bodies by fusing GE and S2 images while incorporating domain knowledge. DFDKFNet uses the remote sensing indices of normalized difference water index (NDWI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the S2 image as the representative domain knowledge to better extract water bodies from terrestrial features. A similar pixel-based approach is used to downscaling the NDWI and NDVI maps to match the spatial resolution between the GE and S2 images. The DFDKFNet uses the GE and downscaled NDWI and NDVI images to extract the deep semantic features of water bodies, which are fused with the domain knowledge extracted from the NDWI and NDVI images. DFDKFNet was compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and the results show that DFDKFNet can enhance water body mapping accuracy.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 5, 2023
Online Publication Date Jan 5, 2023
Publication Date Jan 1, 2023
Deposit Date Jan 6, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jan 6, 2023
Journal IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Print ISSN 1545-598X
Electronic ISSN 1558-0571
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Pages 1-1
Keywords Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Public URL
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