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Strategies for Integrating Metal Nanoparticles with Two-Photon Polymerization Process: Toward High Resolution Functional Additive Manufacturing

Im, Jisun; Liu, Yaan; Hu, Qin; Trindade, Gustavo F.; Parmenter, Christopher; Fay, Michael; He, Yinfeng; Irvine, Derek J.; Tuck, Christopher; Wildman, Ricky D.; Hague, Richard; Turyanska, Lyudmila


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Research Fellow

Yaan Liu

Qin Hu

Gustavo F. Trindade

Transitional Assistant Professor

Professor of Materials Chemistry

Professor of Multiphase Flow and Mechanics

Professor of Additive Manufacturing


This study reports the successful fabrication of complex 3D metal nanoparticle–polymer nanocomposites using two-photon polymerization (2PP). Three complementary strategies are detailed: in situ formation of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) through a single-step photoreduction process, integration of pre-formed MeNPs into 2PP resin, and site-selective MeNPs decoration of 3D 2PP structures. In the in situ formation strategy, a phase-transfer method is applied to transfer silver and copper ions from an aqueous phase into a toluene solvent to disperse them in photoreactive monomers.The addition of a photosensitive dye, coumarin 30, facilitated the reduction of silver ions and improved the distribution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This strategy is successfully used to produce other MeNPs, such as Cu and Au. The integration of pre-formed MeNPs enabled highly controlled NP size distribution within the 2PP 3D structures with high-fidelity To enable selective decoration of 2PP 3D surfaces with MeNPs, a multimaterial strategy is developed, with one of the resins designed for thiol-ene reaction, which demonstrated selective binding to AuNPs. The successful development of complementary strategies for integration of MeNPs into 2PP resins offers exciting opportunities for fabrication of MeNP composites with sub-micron resolution for applications fromphotonics to metamaterials and drug delivery.


Im, J., Liu, Y., Hu, Q., Trindade, G. F., Parmenter, C., Fay, M., …Turyanska, L. (2023). Strategies for Integrating Metal Nanoparticles with Two-Photon Polymerization Process: Toward High Resolution Functional Additive Manufacturing. Advanced Functional Materials, Article 2211920.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 9, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 4, 2023
Publication Date Jan 4, 2023
Deposit Date Jan 5, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jan 12, 2023
Journal Advanced Functional Materials
Print ISSN 1616-301X
Electronic ISSN 1616-3028
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Article Number 2211920
Keywords Electrochemistry; Condensed Matter Physics; Biomaterials; Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Received: 2022-10-14; Published: 2023-01-04


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