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The micro?/nano?PCMs for thermal energy storage systems: A state of art review

Arshad, Adeel; Jabbal, Mark; Yan, Yuying; Darkwa, Jo


Adeel Arshad

Associate Professor

Professor of Thermofluids Engineering

Professor of Energy Storage Technologies


With advancement in technology, the nanotechnology, various thermal energy storage (TES) materials have been invented and modified with promising thermal transport properties. The solid–liquid phase change materials (PCMs) have been extensively used as TES materials for various energy applications due to their highly favourable and potential thermal properties. The class of PCMs, organic phase change materials (OPCMs) have more potential and advantages over the class, inorganic phase change materials (IPCMs) having high phase change enthalpy (positive advantage). However, the OPCMs possess low thermal conductivity as well as density and suffer leakage during the melting phase. The encapsulation technologies (i.e. micro and nano) of PCMs, with organic and inorganic materials, have a tendency to enhance the thermal conductivity, effective heat transfer, and leakage issues as TES materials. The encapsulation of PCMs involves several technologies to develop at both micro and nano levels, called micro–encapsulated PCMs (micro–PCM) and nano–encapsulated PCMs (nano–PCM) respectively. This study covers a wide range of preparation methods, thermal and morphological characteristics, their stability, applications and future perspective of micro/nano–PCMs as TES materials. The potential applications such as solar–to–thermal, electrical–to–thermal, thermal management, building, textile, foam, medical industry of micro– and nano–PCMs are reviewed critically. Finally, this review paper highlights the emerging future research paths of the mico/nano–PCMs for the researchers who are working in the area of thermal energy storage.


Arshad, A., Jabbal, M., Yan, Y., & Darkwa, J. (2019). The micro?/nano?PCMs for thermal energy storage systems: A state of art review. International Journal of Energy Research, 43(11), 5572-5620.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 17, 2019
Online Publication Date May 23, 2019
Publication Date 2019-09
Deposit Date Jan 18, 2019
Publicly Available Date May 24, 2020
Journal International Journal of Energy Research
Print ISSN 0363-907X
Electronic ISSN 1099-114X
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 43
Issue 11
Pages 5572-5620
Keywords Nanotechnology; Thermal energy storage; Phase change materials; Micro–encapsulated; Nano–encapsulated; Micro–PCM; Nano–PCM; Encapsulation technologies
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Arshad, A, Jabbal, M, Yan, Y, Darkwa, J. The micro‐/nano‐PCMs for thermal energy storage systems: A state of art review. Int J Energy Res. 2019; 43: 5572– 5620., which has been published in final form at
This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.


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