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The efficacy of ‘static’ training interventions for improving indices of cardiorespiratory fitness in premenopausal females

Herrod, P. J. J.; Blackwell, J. E. M.; Moss, B. F.; Gates, A.; Atherton, P. J.; Lund, J. N.; Williams, J. P.; Phillips, B. E.


P. J. J. Herrod

J. E. M. Blackwell

B. F. Moss

A. Gates

Professor of Clinical, metabolic & Molecular Physiology

Clinical Associate Professor

Professor of Translational Physiology


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many risk factors for CVD can be modified pharmacologically; however, uptake of medications is low, especially in asymptomatic people. Exercise is also effective at reducing CVD risk, but adoption is poor with time-commitment and cost cited as key reasons for this. Repeated remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) and isometric handgrip (IHG) training are both inexpensive, time-efficient interventions which have shown some promise in reducing blood pressure (BP) and improving markers of cardiovascular health and fitness. However, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in premenopausal women.
Thirty healthy females were recruited to twelve supervised sessions of either RIPC or IHG over 4 weeks, or acted as non-intervention controls (CON). BP measurements, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) were performed at baseline and after the intervention period.
IHG and RIPC were both well-tolerated with 100% adherence to all sessions. A statistically significant reduction in both systolic (-?7.2 mmHg) and diastolic (-?6 mmHg) BP was demonstrated following IHG, with no change following RIPC. No statistically significant improvements were observed in FMD or CPET parameters in any group.
IHG is an inexpensive and well-tolerated intervention which may improve BP; a key risk factor for CVD. Conversely, our single arm RIPC protocol, despite being similarly well-tolerated, did not elicit improvements in any cardiorespiratory parameters in our chosen population.


Herrod, P. J. J., Blackwell, J. E. M., Moss, B. F., Gates, A., Atherton, P. J., Lund, J. N., …Phillips, B. E. (2019). The efficacy of ‘static’ training interventions for improving indices of cardiorespiratory fitness in premenopausal females. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 119(3), 645-652.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 10, 2018
Online Publication Date Dec 27, 2018
Publication Date 2019-03
Deposit Date Jan 14, 2019
Journal European Journal of Applied Physiology
Print ISSN 1439-6319
Electronic ISSN 1439-6327
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 119
Issue 3
Pages 645-652
Keywords Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health; Physiology (medical); Orthopedics and Sports Medicine; General Medicine
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