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A quantum graph approach to metamaterial design

Lawrie, Tristan; Tanner, Gregor; Chronopoulos, Dimitrios

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Tristan Lawrie

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Professor of Applied Mathematics

Dimitrios Chronopoulos


Since the turn of the century, metamaterials have gained a large amount of attention due to their potential for possessing highly nontrivial and exotic properties—such as cloaking or perfect lensing. There has been a great push to create reliable mathematical models that accurately describe the required material composition. Here, we consider a quantum graph approach to metamaterial design. An infinite square periodic quantum graph, constructed from vertices and edges, acts as a paradigm for a 2D metamaterial. Wave transport occurs along the edges with vertices acting as scatterers modelling sub-wavelength resonant elements. These resonant elements are constructed with the help of finite quantum graphs attached to each vertex of the lattice with customisable properties controlled by a unitary scattering matrix. The metamaterial properties are understood and engineered by manipulating the band diagram of the periodic structure. The engineered properties are then demonstrated in terms of the reflection and transmission behaviour of Gaussian beam solutions at an interface between two different metamaterials. We extend this treatment to N layered metamaterials using the Transfer Matrix Method. We demonstrate both positive and negative refraction and beam steering. Our proposed quantum graph modelling technique is very flexible and can be easily adjusted making it an ideal design tool for creating metamaterials with exotic band diagram properties or testing promising multi-layer set ups and wave steering effects.


Lawrie, T., Tanner, G., & Chronopoulos, D. (2022). A quantum graph approach to metamaterial design. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article 18006.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 12, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 26, 2022
Publication Date Oct 26, 2022
Deposit Date Jan 21, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jan 23, 2023
Journal Scientific Reports
Electronic ISSN 2045-2322
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 1
Article Number 18006
Public URL
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