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A Shorter Form of the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale: Construction and Factorial Validation

Kotera, Yasuhiro; Aledeh, Muhammad; Rushforth, Annabel; Otoo, Nelly; Colman, Rory; Taylor, Elaina


Muhammad Aledeh

Annabel Rushforth

Nelly Otoo

Rory Colman

Elaina Taylor


While workplace mental health has attracted attention in many countries, work motivation remains under-researched. Research identified that work motivation is associated with many organisational positive outcomes including workplace mental health. One well-recognised measure is the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS). Conceptualised on the Self-Determination Theory, this 18-item scale examines six types of work motivation: Intrinsic Motivation, Integrated Regulation, Identified Regulation, Introjected Regulation, External Regulation, and Amotivation. WEIMS can be too long for busy people at work. Accordingly, we constructed and validated a shorter form of WEIMS (SWEIMS), comprising 12 items that evaluate the same six work motivation types. Data collected from two professional samples were analysed to construct and validate the factorial structure: 155 construction workers (138 males and 17 females, Age 40.28 ± 11.05) and 103 hospitality workers (47 males and 56 females, Age 28.2 ± 8.6 years). Correlation analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Two items from each type were selected based on the strength of correlations with the target WEIMS subscale. SWEIMS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (α ≧ 0.65), and strong correlations with the original version of WEIMS (r = 0.73) in both samples. SWEIMS confirmatory factor analysis replicated the six-factor model of the original SWEIMS. SWEIMS can be a reliable, valid, and user-friendly alternative to WEIMS.


Kotera, Y., Aledeh, M., Rushforth, A., Otoo, N., Colman, R., & Taylor, E. (2022). A Shorter Form of the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale: Construction and Factorial Validation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(21), Article 13864.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 24, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 25, 2022
Publication Date Nov 1, 2022
Deposit Date Nov 3, 2022
Publicly Available Date Nov 4, 2022
Journal International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Electronic ISSN 1660-4601
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 19
Issue 21
Article Number 13864
Keywords Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale, work motivation, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation, short scale, scale construction, factorial validation
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