Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Actually existing racial capitalism: Financialisation and bordering in UK housing associations

Clare, Nick; de Noronha, Nigel; French, Shaun; Goulding, Richard


Nigel de Noronha

Richard Goulding


This paper provides a critical intervention into recent geographical debates on racial capitalism, interrogating the role that Housing Associations (HAs), the main form of UK social housing, play in its (re)production. Housing Associations are institutional, third-sector spaces within which novel forms of financialisation and bordering take place. Race is central to these processes, but insufficient critical attention has been afforded to the intersections of class, race, and migratory status in extant research on UK HAs. Moreover, existing research into housing and racial capitalism is provincial in its North American focus, typically examining home ownership and private renting. We argue this is a significant lacuna given that new and multiple forms of racialised exclusion, inequality, and extraction cohere in social housing. There is accordingly a pressing need for a robust interrogation of racial capitalisms through UK HAs, and of the role of HAs via the conceptual lens of racial capitalism. In concluding, the paper argues for a new focus on ‘actually existing’ racial capitalisms, and the need for detailed analyses of the logics and practices of racial capitalisms across a variety of sites and scales, helping debates move beyond their conceptual heartland in North America.


Clare, N., de Noronha, N., French, S., & Goulding, R. (2022). Actually existing racial capitalism: Financialisation and bordering in UK housing associations. Geography Compass, 16(11), Article e12665.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 27, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 17, 2022
Publication Date 2022-11
Deposit Date Oct 19, 2022
Publicly Available Date Oct 20, 2022
Journal Geography Compass
Electronic ISSN 1749-8198
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 16
Issue 11
Article Number e12665
Keywords Urban, ARTICLE, austerity, bordering, financialisation, housing associations, neoliberalism, racial capitalism, social housing
Public URL
Publisher URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations