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An investigation of the effects of driver age when using novel navigation systems in a head-up display

Pampel, Sanna; Lamb, Katherine; Burnett, Gary; Skrypchuk, Lee; Hare, Chrisminder; Mouzakitis, Alex


Sanna Pampel

Katherine Lamb

Professor of Transport Human Factors

Lee Skrypchuk

Chrisminder Hare

Alex Mouzakitis


Although drivers gain experience with age, many older drivers are faced with age-related deteriorations that can lead to a higher crash risk. Head-Up Displays (HUDs) have been linked to significant improvements in driving performance for older drivers by tackling issues related to aging. For this study, two Augmented Reality (AR) HUD virtual car navigation solutions were tested (one screen-fixed, one world-fixed), aiming to improve navigation performance and reduce the discrepancy between younger and older drivers by aiding the appropriate allocation of attention and easing interpretation of navigational information. Twenty-five participants (12 younger, 13 older) undertook a series of drives within a medium-fidelity simulator with three different navigational conditions (virtual car HUD, static HUD arrow graphic and traditional head-down satnav). Results showed that older drivers tended to achieve navigational success rates similar to the younger group, but experienced higher objective mental workload. Solely for the static HUD arrow graphic, differences in most workload questionnaire items and objective workload between younger and older participants were not significant. The virtual car led to improved navigation performance of all drivers, compared to the other systems. Hence, both AR HUD systems show potential for older drivers, which needs to be further investigated in a real-world driving context.


Pampel, S., Lamb, K., Burnett, G., Skrypchuk, L., Hare, C., & Mouzakitis, A. (2019). An investigation of the effects of driver age when using novel navigation systems in a head-up display. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 27(1), 32-45.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 28, 2018
Online Publication Date Apr 8, 2019
Publication Date Apr 8, 2019
Deposit Date Nov 27, 2018
Publicly Available Date Jul 9, 2019
Journal Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Print ISSN 1054-7460
Electronic ISSN 1531-3263
Publisher Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 27
Issue 1
Pages 32-45
Series Title Virtual and Augmented Reality for Autonomous Driving and Intelligent Vehicles
Keywords Augmented reality; Virtual car; Navigation; Age; Head-up display
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article is the author's final version and has been accepted for publication in Presence.


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