Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Hyperpolarization methods for MRS

Goodson, Boyd M.; Whiting, Nicholas; Coffey, Aaron M.; Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Shi, Fan; Gust, Brogan M.; Gemeinhardt, Max E.; Shchepin, Roman V.; Skinner, Jason G.; Birchall, Jonathan R.; Barlow, Michael J.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.


Boyd M. Goodson

Nicholas Whiting

Aaron M. Coffey

Panayiotis Nikolaou

Fan Shi

Brogan M. Gust

Max E. Gemeinhardt

Roman V. Shchepin

Jason G. Skinner

Jonathan R. Birchall

Michael J. Barlow

Eduard Y. Chekmenev


Paul A. Bottomley

John R. Griffiths


© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article covers the fundamental principles and practice of NMR hyperpolarization techniques, which are proving useful for in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of metabolism in animal models, and clinical trials with hyper-enhanced sensitivity. Fundamentally, hyperpolarization methods enhance nuclear spin polarization by orders-of-magnitude, resulting in concomitant improvement in NMR detection sensitivity. The hyperpolarization methods described here - dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP), signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE), and spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) - are capable of achieving nuclear spin polarization approaching the theoretical maximum of unity on nuclear spin sites of molecular or atomic agents suitable for in vivo administration. Importantly, hyperpolarization is inherently nonequilibrium in nature: The duration of the hyperpolarization is frequently shortlived, often being limited by the in vivo spin-lattice relaxation times (T 1) that are on the order of seconds to a minute. Nevertheless, sufficient amounts of nuclear spin polarization can survive the process of preparation, administration, and in vivo circulation to provide extraordinary enhancement of the hyperpolarized agent. The chemical shift dispersion of these agents at the molecular location of interest reports on functional, metabolic, and other processes at the molecular level, enabling true molecular MRS imaging.


Goodson, B. M., Whiting, N., Coffey, A. M., Nikolaou, P., Shi, F., Gust, B. M., …Chekmenev, E. Y. (2015). Hyperpolarization methods for MRS.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 5, 2015
Online Publication Date Dec 15, 2015
Publication Date Jan 1, 2015
Deposit Date Oct 3, 2018
Publicly Available Date Oct 3, 2018
Journal eMagRes
Electronic ISSN 2055-6101
Publisher Wiley
Volume 4
Issue 4
Pages 797-810
Series Title eMagRes Books
Series Number 4
Book Title Handbook of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy In Vivo: MRS Theory, Practice and Applications
Chapter Number 33
ISBN 9780470034590; 9780470058213
Public URL
Additional Information © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Downloadable Citations