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Anatomy, histology, development and functions of Ossa cordis: A review

Best, Adam; Egerbacher, Monika; Swaine, Sophia; Pérez, William; Alibhai, Aziza; Rutland, Paul; Kubale, Valentina; El‐Gendy, Samir A. A.; Alsafy, Mohamed A. M.; Baiker, Kerstin; Sturrock, Craig J.; Rutland, Catrin Sian


Adam Best

Monika Egerbacher

Sophia Swaine

William Pérez

Aziza Alibhai

Paul Rutland

Valentina Kubale

Samir A. A. El‐Gendy

Mohamed A. M. Alsafy

Kerstin Baiker


This systematic review highlights the similarities and variations in Ossa cordis prevalence, histology and anatomical location between differing veterinary species and in humans. In addition, it also identifies associated factors such as aging and cardiovascular disease for each species in relation to functional roles and developmental mechanisms that these bone structures may play. The potential functions of Ossa cordis are presented, ranging from aiding cardiac contraction and conduction, providing cardiac structure, and protecting components of the heart, through to counteracting high mechanical stress. Furthermore, this review discusses the evidence and rationale behind the theories regarding the formation and development of Ossa cordis in different veterinary species and in people.


Best, A., Egerbacher, M., Swaine, S., Pérez, W., Alibhai, A., Rutland, P., …Rutland, C. S. (2022). Anatomy, histology, development and functions of Ossa cordis: A review. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 51(6), 683-695.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Aug 25, 2022
Online Publication Date Sep 8, 2022
Publication Date 2022-11
Deposit Date Sep 12, 2022
Publicly Available Date Sep 15, 2022
Journal Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Print ISSN 0340-2096
Electronic ISSN 1439-0264
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 51
Issue 6
Pages 683-695
Keywords General Veterinary; General Medicine
Public URL
Publisher URL


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