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The influence of mineral addition on the Optimised Advanced Ash Fusion Test (OAAFT) and its thermochemical modelling and prediction


Patrick Daley


Cheng Heng Pang


Specific minerals in ash are triggers for ash fusion during combustion. This study analyses, for the first time, the link between individual minerals and the ash fusion of pseudo ash pellets using the Optimised Advanced Ash Fusion Test (OAAFT) and FactSage modelling. The study analysed 20 pseudo ash pellets whose composition spanned a wide range of fuels used in the power generation industry. Varying quantities of the 4 main minerals were used to create the pseudo pellets; CaO (0–40%), Fe2O3 (0–40%), MgO (0–25%), and Silica-Alumina ratio (0.5:1–4:1). The OAAFT produced characteristic ash fusion curves for the pseudo pellets and individual minerals. The study also gained insight into the link between mineral transformations and ash fusion by comparing these profiles to the slag formation predictions in the FactSage modelling. Excellent alignment was obtained between the OAAFT curves and FactSage data. The OAFFT curves can be described as individual fingerprints of the ash fusion behaviour of the sample, which can be broken down into individual components. This data cannot be obtained from the conventional ash fusion test. By combining OAAFT and FactSage data, power generators can replicate slagging and fouling issues and identify the major components which are causing issues. The addition of mineral additives can be tested to analyse how slagging and fouling issues can be tackled for specific fuels. This will be of increasing importance as fuel blending and new complex fuels such as refuse derived fuels enter the market.


Daley, P., Reinmöller, M., Williams, O., Pang, C. H., & Lester, E. (2022). The influence of mineral addition on the Optimised Advanced Ash Fusion Test (OAAFT) and its thermochemical modelling and prediction. Journal of the Energy Institute, 105, 121-132.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 4, 2022
Online Publication Date Aug 17, 2022
Publication Date 2022-12
Deposit Date Aug 22, 2022
Publicly Available Date Aug 25, 2022
Journal Journal of the Energy Institute
Print ISSN 1743-9671
Electronic ISSN 1746-0220
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 105
Pages 121-132
Public URL
Publisher URL


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