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The timing and magnitude of Stroop interference and facilitation in monolinguals and bilinguals

Coderre, Emily L.; van Heuven, Walter J.B.; Conklin, Kathy


Emily L. Coderre

Kathy Conklin


Executive control abilities and lexical access speed in Stroop performance were investigated in English monolinguals and two groups of bilinguals (English–Chinese and Chinese–English) in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Predictions were based on a bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, implicating cognitive control ability as the critical factor determining Stroop interference; and two bilingual lexical disadvantage hypotheses, focusing on lexical access speed. Importantly, each hypothesis predicts different response patterns in a Stroop task manipulating stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). There was evidence for a bilingual cognitive advantage, although this effect was sensitive to a number of variables including proficiency, language immersion, and script. In lexical access speed, no differences occurred between monolinguals and bilinguals in their native languages, but there was evidence for a delay in L2 processing speed relative to the L1. Overall, the data highlight the multitude of factors affecting executive control and lexical access speed in bilinguals.


Coderre, E. L., van Heuven, W. J., & Conklin, K. (2013). The timing and magnitude of Stroop interference and facilitation in monolinguals and bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(Specia),

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Apr 1, 2013
Deposit Date Apr 9, 2014
Publicly Available Date Apr 9, 2014
Journal Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
Print ISSN 1366-7289
Electronic ISSN 1366-7289
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 16
Issue Specia
Keywords Stroop; bilingualism; lexical access; executive control; interference; facilitation
Public URL
Publisher URL


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