Rifampicin (also known as rifampin) inhibits RNA synthesis, and is used to treat tuberculosis, leprosy, staphylococcal infections and legionnaires' disease. It can also protect at-risk populations from Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis. It is a polyketide antibiotic and is on the World Health Organization (WHO) list of essential medicines due to its critical importance to human medicine. The adverse effect of liver toxicity is controlled by testing during prolonged treatment regimes. Rifampicin's red-orange colour can result in the colouration of sweat, tears and urine. Resistance to rifampicin arises from mutation of the target RNA polymerase or ADP ribosylation of the antibiotic or efflux. Mycobacteria may become singularly resistant to rifampicin or as part of multidrug or extensive drug resistance.
Hardie, K. R., & Fenn, S. J. (2022). JMM profile: rifampicin: a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 71(8), https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001566