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Enflurane Additive for Sodium Negative Electrodes

Akkisetty, Bhaskar; Dimogiannis, Konstantinos; Searle, Joanne; Rogers, David; Newton, Graham N.; Johnson, Lee R.

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Bhaskar Akkisetty

Konstantinos Dimogiannis

Joanne Searle

Associate Professor of Chemistry


Development of sodium anodes, both hard carbon (HC) and metallic, is dependent on the discovery of electrolyte formations and additives able to stabilize the interphase and support Na+ transport. Halogen salt additives are known to lower the energy barrier for the Na-ion charge transfer at the interface and facilitate stable Na plating/stripping in a symmetric cell configuration. Here, a halogen-rich additive for the sodium-ion battery electrolyte, 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether (enflurane), is reported. Enflurane offers a simple molecular alternative to salt-based additives. The additive is also shown to improve the cycling performance of sodium metal electrodes. Our analysis demonstrates that enflurane is preferentially reduced at the HC electrode over propylene carbonate and is incorporated into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The result is a thin, halogen-rich SEI that offers better charge transport properties and stability during cycling compared to that formed in the additive-free electrolyte. Additionally, enflurane inhibits polarization of metallic sodium electrodes, and when included in HC half-cells at 10 v/v %, it improves the reversible specific capacity and stability.


Akkisetty, B., Dimogiannis, K., Searle, J., Rogers, D., Newton, G. N., & Johnson, L. R. (2022). Enflurane Additive for Sodium Negative Electrodes. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 14(32), 36551-36556.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 15, 2022
Online Publication Date Aug 5, 2022
Publication Date Aug 17, 2022
Deposit Date Aug 23, 2022
Publicly Available Date Aug 23, 2022
Journal ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Print ISSN 1944-8244
Electronic ISSN 1944-8252
Publisher American Chemical Society (ACS)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 32
Pages 36551-36556
Keywords General Materials Science
Public URL
Publisher URL


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