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Predicting folds in poker using action unit detectors and decision trees

Vinkemeier, Doratha; Valstar, Michel F.; Gratch, Jonathan

Authors

Doratha Vinkemeier doratha.vinkemeier@nottingham.ac.uk

Jonathan Gratch



Abstract

Predicting how a person will respond can be very useful, for instance when designing a strategy for negotiations.
We investigate whether it is possible for machine learning and computer vision techniques to recognize a person’s intentions and predict their actions based on their visually expressive behaviour, where in this paper we focus on the face. We have chosen as our setting pairs of humans playing a simplified version of poker, where the players are behaving naturally and spontaneously, albeit mediated through a computer connection.
In particular, we ask if we can automatically predict whether a player is going to fold or not. We also try to answer the question of at what time point the signal for predicting if a player will fold is strongest. We use state-of-the-art FACS Action Unit detectors to automatically annotate the players facial expressions, which have been recorded on video. In addition, we use timestamps of when the player received their card and when they placed their bets, as well as the amounts they bet. Thus, the system is fully automated. We are able to predict whether a person will fold or not significantly better than chance based solely on their expressive behaviour starting three seconds before they fold.

Start Date May 15, 2018
Publication Date May 18, 2018
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Pages 504-512
Book Title 13th IEEE International Conference on Automatic face and Gesture Recognition: FG 2018
ISBN 9781538623350
APA6 Citation Vinkemeier, D., Valstar, M. F., & Gratch, J. (2018). Predicting folds in poker using action unit detectors and decision trees. In 13th IEEE International Conference on Automatic face and Gesture Recognition: FG 2018. , (504-512). https://doi.org/10.1109/FG.2018.00081
DOI https://doi.org/10.1109/FG.2018.00081
Keywords Automatic facial analysis; Human behavior; Machine learning
Publisher URL https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8373874/
Related Public URLs https://fg2018.cse.sc.edu/
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingh.../end_user_agreement.pdf
Additional Information © 2018 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf





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