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Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests

Slik, J.W. Ferry; Franklin, Janet; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Field, Richard; Aguilar, Salomon; Aguirre, Nikolay; Ahumada, Jorge; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alves, Luciana F.; K, Anitha; Avella, Andres; Mora, Francisco; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Báez, Selene; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bastin, Jean-François; Bellingham, Peter J.; van den Berg, Eduardo; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Boeckx, Pascal; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Brambach, Fabian; Brearley, Francis Q.; Brown, Sandra; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chazdon, Robin L.; Chen, Shengbin; Chhang, Phourin; Chuyong, George; Ewango, Corneille; Coronado, Indiana M.; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, H. S.; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Din, Hazimah; Drake, Donald R.; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Enoki, Tsutomu; Ensslin, Andreas; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Fischer, Markus; Forshed, Olle; Garcia, Queila Souza; Garkoti, Satish Chandra; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Gillet, Jean-Francois; Gonmadje, Christelle; Granzow-de la Cerda, Iñigo; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Harris, David J.; Harrison, Rhett D.; Hector, Andy; Hemp, Andreas; Homeier, Jürgen; Hussain, M. Shah; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Hanum, I. Faridah; Imai, Nobuo; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Joseph, Shijo; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kessler, Michael; Killeen, Timothy J.; Kooyman, Robert M.; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; Letcher, Susan G.; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lovett, Jon; Lozada, Jose; Lu, Xinghui; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana; Mansor, Asyraf; Marshall, Andrew R.; Martin, Emanuel H.; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Meave, Jorge A.; Melo, Felipe P.L.; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre; Metali, Faizah; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Metzker, Thiago; Mohandass, D.; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Nurtjahy, Eddy; de Oliveira, Eddie Lenza; Onrizal, N.; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, N.; Paudel, Ekananda; Perez, Rolando; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Pommer, Ulf; Poorter, Lourens; Qi, Lan; Piedade, Maria Teresa F.; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Prasad, Rama Chandra; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Rangel, Orlando; Reitsma, Jan; Rocha, Diogo S.B.; Rolim, Samir; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Rutten, Gemma; Mohd. Said, Mohd. Nizam; Saiter, Felipe Z.; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio; dos Santos, João Roberto; Sarker, Swapan Kumar; Schmitt, Christine B.; Schoengart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Sheil, Douglas; Sist, Plinio; Souza, Alexandre F.; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Sposito, Tereza; Steinmetz, Robert; Stevart, Tariq; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji; Sukri, Rahayu; Sultana, Aisha; Sukumar, Raman; Sunderland, Terry; Supriyadi, N.; Suresh, H.S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jianwei; Tanner, Ed V.J.; Targhetta, Natalia; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan; Timberlake, Jonathan; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; van Valkenburg, Johan; Van Do, Tran; Van Sam, Hoang; Vandermeer, John H.; Verbeeck, Hans; Vetaas, Ole Reidar; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Webb, Edward L.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge; Williams, John; Wiser, Susan; Wittmann, Florian; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C. Yves; Yap, Sandra L.; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo

Authors

J.W. Ferry Slik

Janet Franklin

Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez

Salomon Aguilar

Nikolay Aguirre

Jorge Ahumada

Shin-Ichiro Aiba

Luciana F. Alves

Anitha K

Andres Avella

Francisco Mora

Gerardo A. Aymard C.

Selene Báez

Patricia Balvanera

Meredith L. Bastian

Jean-François Bastin

Peter J. Bellingham

Eduardo van den Berg

Polyanna da Conceição Bispo

Pascal Boeckx

Katrin Boehning-Gaese

Frans Bongers

Brad Boyle

Fabian Brambach

Francis Q. Brearley

Sandra Brown

Shauna-Lee Chai

Robin L. Chazdon

Shengbin Chen

Phourin Chhang

George Chuyong

Corneille Ewango

Indiana M. Coronado

Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate

Heike Culmsee

Kipiro Damas

H. S. Dattaraja

Priya Davidar

Saara J. DeWalt

Hazimah Din

Donald R. Drake

Alvaro Duque

Giselda Durigan

Karl Eichhorn

Eduardo Schmidt Eler

Tsutomu Enoki

Andreas Ensslin

Adandé Belarmain Fandohan

Nina Farwig

Kenneth J. Feeley

Markus Fischer

Olle Forshed

Queila Souza Garcia

Satish Chandra Garkoti

Thomas W. Gillespie

Jean-Francois Gillet

Christelle Gonmadje

Iñigo Granzow-de la Cerda

Daniel M. Griffith

James Grogan

Khalid Rehman Hakeem

David J. Harris

Rhett D. Harrison

Andy Hector

Andreas Hemp

Jürgen Homeier

M. Shah Hussain

Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez

I. Faridah Hanum

Nobuo Imai

Patrick A. Jansen

Carlos Alfredo Joly

Shijo Joseph

Kuswata Kartawinata

Elizabeth Kearsley

Daniel L. Kelly

Michael Kessler

Timothy J. Killeen

Robert M. Kooyman

Yves Laumonier

Susan G. Laurance

William F. Laurance

Michael J. Lawes

Susan G. Letcher

Jeremy Lindsell

Jon Lovett

Jose Lozada

Xinghui Lu

Anne Mette Lykke

Khairil Bin Mahmud

Ni Putu Diana Mahayani

Asyraf Mansor

Andrew R. Marshall

Emanuel H. Martin

Darley Calderado Leal Matos

Jorge A. Meave

Felipe P.L. Melo

Zhofre Huberto Aguirre Mendoza

Faizah Metali

Vincent P. Medjibe

Jean Paul Metzger

Thiago Metzker

D. Mohandass

Miguel A. Munguía-Rosas

Rodrigo Muñoz

Eddy Nurtjahy

Eddie Lenza de Oliveira

N. Onrizal

Pia Parolin

Marc Parren

N. Parthasarathy

Ekananda Paudel

Rolando Perez

Eduardo A. Pérez-García

Ulf Pommer

Lourens Poorter

Lan Qi

Maria Teresa F. Piedade

José Roberto Rodrigues Pinto

Axel Dalberg Poulsen

John R. Poulsen

Jennifer S. Powers

Rama Chandra Prasad

Jean-Philippe Puyravaud

Orlando Rangel

Jan Reitsma

Diogo S.B. Rocha

Samir Rolim

Francesco Rovero

Andes Rozak

Kalle Ruokolainen

Ervan Rutishauser

Gemma Rutten

Mohd. Nizam Mohd. Said

Felipe Z. Saiter

Philippe Saner

Braulio Santos

João Roberto dos Santos

Swapan Kumar Sarker

Christine B. Schmitt

Jochen Schoengart

Mark Schulze

Douglas Sheil

Plinio Sist

Alexandre F. Souza

Wilson Roberto Spironello

Tereza Sposito

Robert Steinmetz

Tariq Stevart

Marcio Seiji Suganuma

Rahayu Sukri

Aisha Sultana

Raman Sukumar

Terry Sunderland

N. Supriyadi

H.S. Suresh

Eizi Suzuki

Marcelo Tabarelli

Jianwei Tang

Ed V.J. Tanner

Natalia Targhetta

Ida Theilade

Duncan Thomas

Jonathan Timberlake

Márcio de Morisson Valeriano

Johan van Valkenburg

Tran Van Do

Hoang Van Sam

John H. Vandermeer

Hans Verbeeck

Ole Reidar Vetaas

Victor Adekunle

Simone A. Vieira

Campbell O. Webb

Edward L. Webb

Timothy Whitfeld

Serge Wich

John Williams

Susan Wiser

Florian Wittmann

Xiaobo Yang

C. Yves Adou Yao

Sandra L. Yap

Rakan A. Zahawi

Rahmad Zakaria

Runguo Zang



Abstract

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world’s tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world’s tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern hemisphere forests.

Citation

Slik, J. F., Franklin, J., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Field, R., Aguilar, S., Aguirre, N., …Zang, R. (2018). Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(8), 1837-1842. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1714977115

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 22, 2017
Online Publication Date Feb 5, 2018
Publication Date Feb 20, 2018
Deposit Date Feb 8, 2018
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Print ISSN 0027-8424
Electronic ISSN 1091-6490
Publisher National Academy of Sciences
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 115
Issue 8
Pages 1837-1842
DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1714977115
Keywords biogeographic legacies ; forest classification ; forest functional similarity ; phylogenetic community distance ; tropical forests
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/49671
Publisher URL http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/01/31/1714977115
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf