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The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys

Eales, Stephen; Smith, Dan; Bourne, Nathan; Loveday, Jon; Rowlands, Kate; van der Werf, Paul; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, Steve; Robotham, Aaron; Smith, Matthew W.L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wright, Angus; Cigan, Philip; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Jarvis, Matt J.; Marchetti, Lucia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Phillipps, Steven; Viaene, Sebastien; Vlahakis, Catherine


Stephen Eales

Dan Smith

Nathan Bourne

Jon Loveday

Kate Rowlands

Paul van der Werf

Simon Driver

Loretta Dunne

Associate Professor

Cristina Furlanetto

R. J. Ivison

Steve Maddox

Aaron Robotham

Matthew W.L. Smith

Edward N. Taylor

Elisabetta Valiante

Angus Wright

Philip Cigan

Gianfranco De Zotti

Matt J. Jarvis

Lucia Marchetti

Michał J. Michałowski

Steven Phillipps

Sebastien Viaene

Catherine Vlahakis


© 2018 The Author(s). The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed a very different galaxyscape from that shown by optical surveys which presents a challenge for galaxy-evolution models. The Herschel surveys reveal (1) that there was rapid galaxy evolution in the very recent past and (2) that galaxies lie on a single Galaxy Sequence (GS) rather than a star-forming 'main sequence' and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red-and-dead' galaxies. The form of the GS is now clearer because far-infrared surveys such as the Herschel ATLAS pick up a population of optically red starforming galaxies that would have been classified as passive using most optical criteria. The space-density of this population is at least as high as the traditional star-forming population. By stacking spectra of H-ATLAS galaxies over the redshift range 0.001 < z < 0.4, we show that the galaxies responsible for the rapid low-redshift evolution have high stellar masses, high star-formation rates but, even several billion years in the past, old stellar populations - they are thus likely to be relatively recent ancestors of early-type galaxies in the Universe today. The form of the GS is inconsistent with rapid quenching models and neither the analytic bathtub model nor the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation can reproduce the rapid cosmic evolution. We propose a new gentler model of galaxy evolution that can explain the new Herschel results and other key properties of the galaxy population.


Eales, S., Smith, D., Bourne, N., Loveday, J., Rowlands, K., van der Werf, P., …Vlahakis, C. (2018). The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 473(3), 3507-3524.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 28, 2017
Online Publication Date Oct 12, 2017
Publication Date Jan 1, 2018
Deposit Date Dec 20, 2017
Publicly Available Date Dec 20, 2017
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 473
Issue 3
Pages 3507-3524
Keywords galaxies: evolution
Public URL
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:
Additional Information This article has been accepted for publication in © 2017 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:

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