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The invertebrate lysozyme effector ILYS-3 is systemically activated in response to danger signals and confers antimicrobial protection in C. elegans

Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

Authors

Maria João Gravato-Nobre

Filipa Vaz

Sergio Filipe

RONALD CHALMERS RONALD.CHALMERS@NOTTINGHAM.AC.UK
Professor of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Jonathan Hodgkin



Abstract

Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material.

Citation

Gravato-Nobre, M. J., Vaz, F., Filipe, S., Chalmers, R., & Hodgkin, J. (2016). The invertebrate lysozyme effector ILYS-3 is systemically activated in response to danger signals and confers antimicrobial protection in C. elegans. PLoS Pathogens, 12(8), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005826

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 25, 2016
Online Publication Date Aug 15, 2016
Publication Date Aug 15, 2016
Deposit Date Feb 10, 2017
Publicly Available Date Feb 10, 2017
Journal PLoS Pathogens
Print ISSN 1553-7366
Electronic ISSN 1553-7366
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 8
Article Number e1005826
DOI https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005826
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/40521
Publisher URL http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005826
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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