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Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

Tewarie, Prejaas K.; Bright, M. G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S. E.; Gascoyne, Lauren E.; Morris, P. G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M. J.

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Prejaas K. Tewarie

M. G. Bright

A. Hillebrand

S. E. Robson

Lauren E. Gascoyne

P. G. Morris

J. Meier

P. Van Mieghem

M. J. Brookes


Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 24, 2016
Online Publication Date Jan 28, 2016
Publication Date Apr 15, 2016
Deposit Date Jul 18, 2016
Publicly Available Date Jul 18, 2016
Journal NeuroImage
Print ISSN 1053-8119
Electronic ISSN 1053-8119
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 130
Keywords Magnetoencephalography; MEG; Functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI; Functional connectivity; Resting state network; RSN; Relationship between fMRI and MEG; Mapping; Multivariate Taylor series
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