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The Role of Electric Vehicle Charging Technologies in the Decarbonisation of the Energy Grid

Waldron, Julie; Rodrigues, Lucelia; Gillott, Mark; Naylor, Sophie; Shipman, Rob

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Julie Waldron

Professor of Sustainable Building Design

Sophie Naylor

Associate Professor


Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) has been identified as a key technology to help reduce carbon emissions from the transport and energy sectors. However, the benefits of this technology are best achieved when multiple variables are considered in the process of charging and discharging an electric vehicle. These variables include vehicle behaviour, building energy demand, renewable energy generation, and grid carbon intensity. It is expected that the transition to electric mobility will add pressure to the energy grid. Using the batteries of electric vehicles as energy storage to send energy back to the grid during high-demand, carbon-intensive periods will help to reduce the impact of introducing electric vehicles and minimise carbon emissions of the system. In this paper, the authors present a method and propose a V2G control scheme integrating one year of historical vehicle and energy datasets, aiming towards carbon emissions reduction through increased local consumption of renewable energy, offset of vehicle charging demand to low carbon intensity periods, and offset of local building demand from peak and carbon-intensive periods through storage in the vehicle battery. The study included assessment of strategic location and the number of chargers to support a fleet of five vehicles to make the transition to electric mobility and integrate vehicle-to-grid without impacting current service provision. The authors found that the proposed V2G scheme helped to reduce the average carbon intensity per kilowatt (gCO2/kWh) in simulation scenarios, despite the increased energy demand from electric vehicles charging. For instance, in one of the tested scenarios V2G reduced the average carbon intensity per kilowatt from 223.8 gCO2/kWh with unmanaged charging to 218.9 gCO2/kWh using V2G.


Waldron, J., Rodrigues, L., Gillott, M., Naylor, S., & Shipman, R. (2022). The Role of Electric Vehicle Charging Technologies in the Decarbonisation of the Energy Grid. Energies, 15(7), Article 2447.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 23, 2022
Online Publication Date Mar 26, 2022
Publication Date Apr 1, 2022
Deposit Date Aug 25, 2022
Publicly Available Date Aug 25, 2022
Journal Energies
Electronic ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher MDPI AG
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 15
Issue 7
Article Number 2447
Keywords Energy (miscellaneous); Energy Engineering and Power Technology; Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Control and Optimization; Engineering (miscellaneous)
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