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Pro-inflammatory effects of silver nanoparticles in the intestine

Sousa, Adelaide; Bradshaw, Tracey D.; Ribeiro, Daniela; Fernandes, Eduarda; Freitas, Marisa


Adelaide Sousa

Daniela Ribeiro

Eduarda Fernandes

Marisa Freitas


Nanotechnology is a promising technology of the twenty-first century, being a rapidly evolving field of research and industrial innovation widely applied in our everyday life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are considered the most commercialized nanosystems worldwide, being applied in diverse sectors, from medicine to the food industry. Considering their unique physical, chemical and biological properties, AgNP have gained access into our daily life, with an exponential use in food industry, leading to an increased inevitable human oral exposure. With the growing use of AgNP, several concerns have been raised, in recent years, about their potential hazards to human health, more precisely their pro-inflammatory effects within the gastrointestinal system. Therefore a review of the literature has been undertaken to understand the pro-inflammatory potential of AgNP, after human oral exposure, in the intestine. Despite the paucity of information reported in the literature about this issue, existing studies indicate that AgNP exert a pro-inflammatory action, through generation of oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, interference with transcription factors and production of cytokines. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanistic pathways and molecular targets involved in the intestinal pro-inflammatory effects of AgNP.


Sousa, A., Bradshaw, T. D., Ribeiro, D., Fernandes, E., & Freitas, M. (2022). Pro-inflammatory effects of silver nanoparticles in the intestine. Archives of Toxicology, 96(6), 1551-1571.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 23, 2022
Online Publication Date Mar 16, 2022
Publication Date 2022-06
Deposit Date Aug 17, 2022
Journal Archives of Toxicology
Print ISSN 0340-5761
Electronic ISSN 1432-0738
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 96
Issue 6
Pages 1551-1571
Keywords Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis; Toxicology; General Medicine
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Received: 12 January 2022; Accepted: 23 February 2022; First Online: 16 March 2022; : ; : The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.