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nIFTy cosmology: comparison of galaxy formation models

Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Thomas, Peter A.; Benson, Andrew; Blaizot, Jeremy; Bower, Richard; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Cattaneo, Andrea; Cora, Sofia A.; Croton, Darren J.; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; De Lucia, Gabriella; Devriendt, Julien E.; Elahi, Pascal Jahan; Font, Andreea; Fontanot, Fabio; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Gargiulo, Ignacio D.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Helly, John; Henriques, Bruno; Hirschmann, Michaela; Lee, Jaehyun; Mamon, Gary A.; Monaco, Pierluigi; Onions, Julian; Padilla, Nelson D.; Power, Chris; Pujol, Arnau; Skibba, R.A.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Srisawat, Chaichalit; Vega-Martínez, Cristian A.; Yi, Sukyoung K.


Alexander Knebe

Frazer R. Pearce

Peter A. Thomas

Andrew Benson

Jeremy Blaizot

Richard Bower

Jorge Carretero

Francisco J. Castander

Andrea Cattaneo

Sofia A. Cora

Darren J. Croton

Weiguang Cui

Daniel Cunnama

Gabriella De Lucia

Julien E. Devriendt

Pascal Jahan Elahi

Andreea Font

Fabio Fontanot

Juan Garcia-Bellido

Ignacio D. Gargiulo

Violeta Gonzalez-Perez

John Helly

Bruno Henriques

Michaela Hirschmann

Jaehyun Lee

Gary A. Mamon

Pierluigi Monaco

Julian Onions

Nelson D. Padilla

Chris Power

Arnau Pujol

R.A. Skibba

Rachel S. Somerville

Chaichalit Srisawat

Cristian A. Vega-Martínez

Sukyoung K. Yi


We present a comparison of 14 galaxy formation models: 12 different semi-analytical models and 2 halo occupation distribution models for galaxy formation based upon the same cosmological simulation and merger tree information derived from it. The participating codes have proven to be very successful in their own right but they have all been calibrated independently using various observational data sets, stellar models, and merger trees. In this paper, we apply them without recalibration and this leads to a wide variety of predictions for the stellar mass function, specific star formation rates, stellar-to-halo mass ratios, and the abundance of orphan galaxies. The scatter is much larger than seen in previous comparison studies primarily because the codes have been used outside of their native environment within which they are well tested and calibrated. The purpose of the ‘nIFTy comparison of galaxy formation models’ is to bring together as many different galaxy formation modellers as possible and to investigate a common approach to model calibration. This paper provides a unified description for all participating models and presents the initial, uncalibrated comparison as a baseline for our future studies where we will develop a common calibration framework and address the extent to which that reduces the scatter in the model predictions seen here.


Knebe, A., Pearce, F. R., Thomas, P. A., Benson, A., Blaizot, J., Bower, R., …Yi, S. K. (2015). nIFTy cosmology: comparison of galaxy formation models. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 451(4),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 18, 2015
Publication Date Jun 30, 2015
Deposit Date May 4, 2017
Publicly Available Date May 4, 2017
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 451
Issue 4
Keywords methods: analytical – methods: numerical – galaxies: evolution – galaxies: haloes – cosmology: theory – dark matter
Public URL
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:
Additional Information This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2015 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:

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