Multi-trait mimicry of ants by a parasitoid wasp
Malcicka, Miriama; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Visser, Bertanne; Bloemberg, Mark; Snart, Charles J.P.; Hardy, Ian C.W.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.
T. Martijn Bezemer
Charles J.P. Snart
Ian C.W. Hardy
Jeffrey A. Harvey
Many animals avoid attack from predators through toxicity or the emission of repellent chemicals. Defensive mimicry has evolved in many species to deceive shared predators, for instance through colouration and other morphological adaptations, but mimicry hardly ever seems to involve multi-trait similarities. Here we report on a wingless parasitoid wasp that exhibits a full spectrum of traits mimicing ants and affording protection against ground-dwelling predators (wolf spiders). In body size, morphology and movement Gelis agilis (Ichneumonidae) is highly similar to the black garden ant (Lasius niger) that shares the same habitat. When threatened, G. agilis also emits a volatile chemical that is similar to an ant-produced chemical that repels spiders. In bioassays with L. niger, G. agilis, G. areator, Cotesia glomerata and Drosophila melanogaster, ants and G. agilis were virtually immune to spider attack, in contrast the other species were not. Volatile characterisation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified G. agilis emissions as 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, a known insect defence semiochemical that acts as an alarm pheromone in ants. We argue that multi-trait mimicry, as observed in G. agilis, might be much more common among animals than currently realized.
|Journal Article Type||Article|
|Publisher||Nature Publishing Group|
|Peer Reviewed||Peer Reviewed|
|APA6 Citation||Malcicka, M., Bezemer, T. M., Visser, B., Bloemberg, M., Snart, C. J., Hardy, I. C., & Harvey, J. A. (in press). Multi-trait mimicry of ants by a parasitoid wasp. Scientific Reports, 5, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep08043|
|Copyright Statement||Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0|
Malcicka Bezemer Visser Bloemberg Snart Hardy Harvey Multi-trait mimicry of ants by a parasitoid wasp Scientific Reports 2015.pdf
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0