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Theoretical and practical aspects of the design and production of synthetic holograms for transmission electron microscopy

Rosi, Paolo; Venturi, Federico; Medici, Giacomo; Menozzi, Claudia; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Rotunno, Enzo; Frabboni, Stefano; Balboni, Roberto; Rezaee, Mohammadreza; Tavabi, Amir H.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Grillo, Vincenzo

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Paolo Rosi

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Assistant Professor in Materials & Aerospace Engineering

Giacomo Medici

Claudia Menozzi

Gian Carlo Gazzadi

Enzo Rotunno

Stefano Frabboni

Roberto Balboni

Mohammadreza Rezaee

Amir H. Tavabi

Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski

Ebrahim Karimi

Vincenzo Grillo


Beam shaping-the ability to engineer the phase and the amplitude of massive and massless particles-has long interested scientists working on communication, imaging, and the foundations of quantum mechanics. In light optics, the shaping of electromagnetic waves (photons) can be achieved using techniques that include, but are not limited to, direct manipulation of the beam source (as in X-ray free electron lasers and synchrotrons), deformable mirrors, spatial light modulators, mode converters, and holograms. The recent introduction of holographic masks for electrons provides new possibilities for electron beam shaping. Their fabrication has been made possible by advances in micrometric and nanometric device production using lithography and focused on ion beam patterning. This article provides a tutorial on the generation, production, and analysis of synthetic holograms for transmission electron microscopy. It begins with an introduction to synthetic holograms, outlining why they are useful for beam shaping to study material properties. It then focuses on the fabrication of the required devices from theoretical and experimental perspectives, with examples taken from both simulations and experimental results. Applications of synthetic electron holograms as aberration correctors, electron vortex generators, and spatial mode sorters are then presented.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 21, 2021
Online Publication Date Jan 18, 2022
Publication Date Jan 21, 2022
Deposit Date Jul 8, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jul 11, 2022
Journal Journal of Applied Physics
Print ISSN 0021-8979
Electronic ISSN 1089-7550
Publisher AIP Publishing
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 131
Issue 3
Article Number 031101
Keywords Electron holograpy
Public URL
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