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Simulating the Hydrodynamic Conditions of the Human Ascending Colon: A Digital Twin of the Dynamic Colon Model

Schütt, Michael; O’Farrell, Connor; Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Hoad, Caroline L.; Marciani, Luca; Sulaiman, Sarah; Simmons, Mark J. H.; Batchelor, Hannah K.; Alexiadis, Alessio

Simulating the Hydrodynamic Conditions of the Human Ascending Colon: A Digital Twin of the Dynamic Colon Model Thumbnail


Michael Schütt

Connor O’Farrell

Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

Senior Research Fellow

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Professor of Gastrointestinal Imaging

Sarah Sulaiman

Mark J. H. Simmons

Hannah K. Batchelor

Alessio Alexiadis


The performance of solid oral dosage forms targeting the colon is typically evaluated using standardised pharmacopeial dissolution apparatuses. However, these fail to replicate colonic hydrodynamics. This study develops a digital twin of the Dynamic Colon Model; a physiologically representative in vitro model of the human proximal colon. Magnetic resonance imaging of the Dynamic Colon Model verified that the digital twin robustly replicated flow patterns under different physiological conditions (media viscosity, volume, and peristaltic wave speed). During local contractile activity, antegrade flows of 0.06–0.78 cm s−1 and backflows of −2.16–−0.21 cm s−1 were measured. Mean wall shear rates were strongly time and viscosity dependent although peaks were measured between 3.05–10.12 s−1 and 5.11–20.34 s−1 in the Dynamic Colon Model and its digital twin respectively, comparable to previous estimates of the USPII with paddle speeds of 25 and 50 rpm. It is recommended that viscosity and shear rates are considered when designing future dissolution test methodologies for colon-targeted formulations. In the USPII, paddle speeds >50 rpm may not recreate physiologically relevant shear rates. These findings demonstrate how the combination of biorelevant in vitro and in silico models can provide new insights for dissolution testing beyond established pharmacopeial methods.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 11, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 13, 2022
Publication Date Jan 13, 2022
Deposit Date Jan 18, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 18, 2022
Journal Pharmaceutics
Electronic ISSN 1999-4923
Publisher MDPI AG
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 1
Article Number 184
Keywords Pharmaceutical Science
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