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Molecular Characterization of Adipose Tissue in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

Nilsson, Emeli M.; Fainberg, Hernan P.; Choong, Siew S.; Giles, Thomas C.; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, William R.; Emes, Richard D.; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P.; Yon, Lisa


Emeli M. Nilsson

Hernan P. Fainberg

Siew S. Choong

Thomas C. Giles

James Sells

Fiona J. Stansfield

William R. Allen

Professor of Bioinformatics

Associate Professor


Jean-Marc A. Lobaccaro


Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body condition on reproduction in captive and wild elephants.


Nilsson, E. M., Fainberg, H. P., Choong, S. S., Giles, T. C., Sells, J., May, S., …Yon, L. (2014). Molecular Characterization of Adipose Tissue in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana). PLoS ONE, 9(3),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 14, 2014
Online Publication Date Mar 14, 2014
Publication Date Mar 14, 2014
Deposit Date Jul 2, 2015
Publicly Available Date Jul 2, 2015
Journal PLoS ONE
Electronic ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Issue 3
Article Number e91717
Public URL
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:


2014_PloOne.pdf (1.8 Mb)

Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:

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