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Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats

Hallowell, Gayle D.; Potter, Timothy J.; Bowen, I. Mark

Authors

Gayle D. Hallowell

Timothy J. Potter

I. Mark Bowen



Abstract

Background
Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats.

Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean ± 2 standard deviations) were calculated for both species.

Results
Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats.

Conclusions
This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Sep 27, 2012
Journal BMC Veterinary Research
Electronic ISSN 1746-6148
Publisher Humana Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
Issue Septem
Article Number 11
Institution Citation Hallowell, G. D., Potter, T. J., & Bowen, I. M. (2012). Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats. BMC Veterinary Research, 8(Septem), doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-181
DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-8-181
Keywords Ovine, Caprine, Cardiac, Heart, Measurements, Ultrasonography
Publisher URL http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/8/181/abstract
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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