Magnetic monopoles may be produced by the dual Schwinger effect in strong magnetic fields. Today, the strongest known magnetic fields in the Universe are produced fleetingly in heavy-ion collisions. We use the complex worldline instanton method to calculate the momentum distribution of magnetic monopoles produced in heavy-ion collisions, in an approximation that includes the effect of the magnetic field to all orders but neglects monopole self-interactions. The result saturates the preparation time-energy uncertainty principle, and yields a necessary ingredient for experimental monopole searches in heavy-ion collisions.
Gould, O., Ho, D. L., & Rajantie, A. (2021). Schwinger pair production of magnetic monopoles: Momentum distribution for heavy-ion collisions. Physical Review D, 104(1), Article 015033. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.104.015033