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Plant gathering and people-environment interactions at Epipalaeolithic Kharaneh IV, Jordan

Bode, Leslie J. K.; Livarda, Alexandra; Jones, Matthew D.

Plant gathering and people-environment interactions at Epipalaeolithic Kharaneh IV, Jordan Thumbnail


Leslie J. K. Bode

Alexandra Livarda

Professor of Quaternary Science


This paper presents the first archaeobotanical results on plant macroremains other than charcoal from the Early and Middle Epipalaeolithic site of Kharaneh IV in the Azraq basin, one of the largest Epipalaeolithic sites in the southern Levant and one of the few with evidence for multiple phases of occupation. The analysis of the substantial archaeobotanical assemblage from the site provides new insights into the local environmental conditions and how these changed throughout occupation, potentially affecting the use of the site, and it further contributes to debates about hunter-gatherer lifeways during the earlier Epipalaeolithic. A variety of potential food plant resources was identified, including several starch-rich seeds and tissues, fruits and various other wild seeds and grains. Comparison of the Kharaneh IV archaeobotanical assemblage with those from other Epipalaeolithic sites in the southern Levant reveals a number of similarities and differences. These comparisons, and especially with the contemporary nearby site of Wadi Jilat 6, support the emerging picture of an ecological mosaic within the Epipalaeolithic Azraq basin, and a general pattern of local resource use across the wider region.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 22, 2021
Online Publication Date May 2, 2021
Publication Date May 2, 2021
Deposit Date May 4, 2021
Publicly Available Date May 3, 2022
Journal Vegetation History and Archaeobotany
Print ISSN 0939-6314
Electronic ISSN 1617-6278
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Archaeology; Plant Science; Palaeontology
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. The final authenticated version is available online at:


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