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On the contribution of malt quality and the malting process to the formation of beer staling aldehydes: a review

De Cooman, Luc; Cook, David; Powell, Chris; Aerts, Guido; De Rouck, Gert; Bustillo Trueba, Paula; Ditrych, Maciej; Jaskula?Goiris, Barbara; Filipowska, Weronika


Luc De Cooman

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Sabmiller Chair Brewing Science

Guido Aerts

Gert De Rouck

Paula Bustillo Trueba

Maciej Ditrych

Barbara Jaskula?Goiris

Weronika Filipowska


Despite decades of extensive research, beer flavour instability remains a challenge for both brewing and malting industries. Malt impacts the brewing process as well as the quality of the final beer. It also affects the stability of beer flavour, as it delivers to the brewing process various compounds with the potential to compromise the desired flavour characteristics of beer. These include staling aldehydes and their precursors, such as amino acids, reducing sugars, α-dicarbonyls and bound-state aldehydes. In general, the content of these compounds depends on barley variety and quality, the malting regime and final malt quality. Malt that represents a low potential for beer staling, i.e. that has low values of Kolbach Index, heat load, colour, LOX activity, Strecker aldehydes, transition metal ions and high antioxidative activity, leads to beer with enhanced flavour stability. However, the consistent production of malt with the desired quality remains challenging. Approaches to achieve this include adjustment of steeping and germination conditions, allowing control of grain modification and thus, the reservoir of aldehydes precursors. Also, the application of alternative kilning technologies may reduce the applied heat load, responsible for the formation of staling aldehydes and triggering development of the oxidising free radical species. This review provides an evaluation of current knowledge on the contribution of the malting process and malt quality to the formation of beer staling aldehydes. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of the Institute of Brewing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.


De Cooman, L., Cook, D., Powell, C., Aerts, G., De Rouck, G., Bustillo Trueba, P., …Filipowska, W. (2021). On the contribution of malt quality and the malting process to the formation of beer staling aldehydes: a review. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 127(2), 107-126.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 10, 2021
Online Publication Date Mar 30, 2021
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Mar 31, 2021
Publicly Available Date Apr 1, 2021
Journal Journal of the Institute of Brewing
Electronic ISSN 2050-0416
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 127
Issue 2
Pages 107-126
Keywords Food Science
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