Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Human gnathostomiasis: a neglected food-borne zoonosis

Liu, Guo-Hua; Sun, Miao-Miao; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Fu, Yi-Tian; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Ando, Katsuhiko; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Yao, Chaoqun


Guo-Hua Liu

Miao-Miao Sun

Yi-Tian Fu

Hiromu Sugiyama

Katsuhiko Ando

Woon-Mok Sohn

Xing-Quan Zhu

Chaoqun Yao


Background: Human gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis. Its etiological agents are the third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp. Human gnathostomiasis is often reported in developing countries, but it is also an emerging disease in developed countries in non-endemic areas. The recent surge in cases of human gnathostomiasis is mainly due to the increasing consumption of raw freshwater fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Methods: This article reviews the literature on Gnathostoma spp. and the disease that these parasites cause in humans. We review the literature on the life cycle and pathogenesis of these parasites, the clinical features, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control, and new molecular findings on human gnathostomiasis, and social-ecological factors related to the transmission of this disease. Conclusions: The information presented provides an impetus for studying the parasite biology and host immunity. It is urgently needed to develop a quick and sensitive diagnosis and to develop an effective regimen for the management and control of human gnathostomiasis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].


Liu, G., Sun, M., Elsheikha, H. M., Fu, Y., Sugiyama, H., Ando, K., …Yao, C. (2020). Human gnathostomiasis: a neglected food-borne zoonosis. Parasites and Vectors, 13(1),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 19, 2020
Online Publication Date Dec 9, 2020
Publication Date Dec 9, 2020
Deposit Date Dec 11, 2020
Publicly Available Date Dec 11, 2020
Journal Parasites and Vectors
Print ISSN 1756-3305
Electronic ISSN 1756-3305
Publisher BioMed Central
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 1
Article Number 616
Keywords Parasitology; Infectious Diseases
Public URL
Publisher URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations