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Association between non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy and adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease: Acohort study

Fenton, Anthony; Chinnadurai, Rajkumar; Gullapudi, Latha; Kampanis, Petros; Dasgupta, Indranil; Ritchie, James; Harding, Stephen; Ferro, Charles J.; Kalra, Philip A.; Taal, Maarten W.; Cockwell, Paul


Anthony Fenton

Rajkumar Chinnadurai

Latha Gullapudi

Petros Kampanis

Indranil Dasgupta

James Ritchie

Charles J. Ferro

Philip A. Kalra

Paul Cockwell


Giuseppe Remuzzi


BACKGROUND: In studies including the general population, the presence of non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy (MG) can be causally associated with kidney damage and shorter survival. We assessed whether the presence of an MG is associated with a higher risk of kidney failure or death in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were used from 3 prospective cohorts of individuals with CKD (not on dialysis or with a kidney transplant): (1) Renal Impairment in Secondary Care (RIISC, Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK, N = 878), (2) Salford Kidney Study (SKS, Salford Royal Hospital, Salford, UK, N = 861), and (3) Renal Risk in Derby (RRID, Derby, UK, N = 1,739). Participants were excluded if they had multiple myeloma or any other B cell lymphoproliferative disorder with end-organ damage. Median age was 71.0 years, 50.6% were male, median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 42.3 ml/min/1.73 m2, and median urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 3.4 mg/mmol. All non-malignant MG was identified in the baseline serum of participants of RIISC. Further, light chain MG (LC-MG) was identified and studied in participants of RIISC, SKS, and RRID. Participants were followed up for kidney failure (defined as the initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation) and death. Associations with the risk of kidney failure were estimated by competing-risks regression (handling death as a competing risk), and associations with death were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. In total, 102 (11.6%) of the 878 RIISC participants had an MG. During a median follow-up time of 74.0 months, there were 327 kidney failure events and 202 deaths. The presence of MG was not associated with risk of kidney failure (univariable subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.97 [95% CI 0.68 to 1.38], P = 0.85; multivariable SHR 1.16 [95% CI 0.80 to 1.69], P = 0.43), and although there was a higher risk of death in univariable analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 2.13 [95% CI 1.49 to 3.02], P < 0.001), this was not significant in multivariable analysis (HR 1.37 [95% CI 0.93 to 2.00], P = 0.11). Fifty-five (1.6%) of the 3,478 participants from all 3 studies had LC-MG. During a median follow-up time of 62.5 months, 564 of the 3,478 participants progressed to kidney failure, and 803 died. LC-MG was not associated with risk of kidney failure (univariable SHR 1.07 [95% CI 0.58 to 1.96], P = 0.82; multivariable SHR 1.42 [95% CI 0.78 to 2.57], P = 0.26). There was a higher risk of death in those with LC-MG in the univariable model (HR 2.51 [95% CI 1.59 to 3.96], P < 0.001), but not in the multivariable model (HR 1.49 [95% CI 0.93 to 2.39], P = 0.10). An important limitation of this work was that only LC-MG, rather than any MG, could be identified in participants from SKS and RRID. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MG was higher in this CKD cohort than that reported in the general population. However, the presence of an MG was not independently associated with a significantly higher risk of kidney failure or, unlike in the general population, risk of death.


Fenton, A., Chinnadurai, R., Gullapudi, L., Kampanis, P., Dasgupta, I., Ritchie, J., …Cockwell, P. (2020). Association between non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy and adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease: Acohort study. PLoS Medicine, 17(2), Article e1003050.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 3, 2020
Online Publication Date Feb 28, 2020
Publication Date Feb 1, 2020
Deposit Date Feb 27, 2020
Publicly Available Date Feb 27, 2020
Journal PLoS medicine
Print ISSN 1549-1277
Electronic ISSN 1549-1676
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 17
Issue 2
Article Number e1003050
Keywords General Medicine
Public URL
Publisher URL


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