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Adding evidence of the effects of treatments into relevant Wikipedia pages: a randomised trial

Adams, Clive E; Montgomery, Alan A; Aburrow, Tony; Bloomfield, Sophie; Briley, Paul M.; Carew, Ebun; Chatterjee-Woolman, Suravi; Feddah, Ghalia; Friedel, Johannes; Gibbard, Josh; Haynes, Euan; Hussein, Mohsin; Jayaram, Mahesh; Naylor, Samuel D.; Perry, Luke; Schmidt, Lena; Siddique, Umer; Tabaksert, Ayla S.; Taylor, Douglas; Velani, Aarti; White, Douglas; Xia, Jun


Clive E Adams

Director, nottingham Clinical Trials Unit

Tony Aburrow

Sophie Bloomfield

Paul M. Briley

Ebun Carew

Suravi Chatterjee-Woolman

Ghalia Feddah

Johannes Friedel

Josh Gibbard

Euan Haynes

Mohsin Hussein

Mahesh Jayaram

Samuel D. Naylor

Luke Perry

Lena Schmidt

Umer Siddique

Ayla S. Tabaksert

Douglas Taylor

Aarti Velani

Douglas White

Lead For Systematic Review & Grade Guideline Centre



To investigate the effects of adding high-grade quantitative evidence of outcomes of treatments into relevant Wikipedia pages on further information-seeking behaviour by the use of routinely collected data.


Wikipedia, Cochrane summary pages and the Cochrane Library.


Randomised trial.


Wikipedia pages which were highly relevant to up-to-date Cochrane Schizophrenia systematic reviews that contained a Summary of Findings table.


Eligible Wikipedia pages in the intervention group were seeded with tables of best evidence of the effects of care and hyperlinks to the source Cochrane review. Eligible Wikipedia pages in the control group were left unchanged.

Main outcome measures

Routinely collected data on access to the full text and summary web page (after 12 months).


We randomised 70 Wikipedia pages (100% follow-up). Six of the 35 Wikipedia pages in the intervention group had the tabular format deleted during the study but all pages continued to report the same data within the text. There was no evidence of effect on either of the coprimary outcomes: full-text access adjusted ratio of geometric means 1.30, 95% CI: 0.71 to 2.38; page views 1.14, 95% CI: 0.6 to 2.13. Results were similar for all other outcomes, with exception of Altmetric score for which there was some evidence of clear effect (1.36, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.78).


The pursuit of fair balance within Wikipedia healthcare pages is impressive and its reach unsurpassed. For every person who sought and clicked the reference on the ‘intervention’ Wikipedia page to seek more information (the primary outcome), many more are likely to have been informed by the page alone. Enriching Wikipedia content is, potentially, a powerful way to improve health literacy and it is possible to test the effects of seeding pages with evidence. This trial should be replicated, expanded and developed.

Trial registration number



Adams, C. E., Montgomery, A. A., Aburrow, T., Bloomfield, S., Briley, P. M., Carew, E., …Xia, J. (2020). Adding evidence of the effects of treatments into relevant Wikipedia pages: a randomised trial. BMJ Open, 10(2), Article e033655.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 7, 2020
Online Publication Date Feb 20, 2020
Publication Date Feb 20, 2020
Deposit Date Jan 23, 2020
Publicly Available Date Feb 25, 2020
Journal BMJ Open
Electronic ISSN 2044-6055
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 2
Article Number e033655
Keywords General Medicine
Public URL
Publisher URL


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