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Effects of a personalized nutrition program on cardiometabolic health: a randomized controlled trial

Bermingham, Kate M.; Linenberg, Inbar; Polidori, Lorenzo; Asnicar, Francesco; Arrè, Alberto; Wolf, Jonathan; Badri, Fatema; Bernard, Hannah; Capdevila, Joan; Bulsiewicz, William J.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Davies, Richard; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Hall, Wendy L.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Valdes, Ana M.; Segata, Nicola; Spector, Tim D.; Berry, Sarah E.

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Kate M. Bermingham

Inbar Linenberg

Lorenzo Polidori

Francesco Asnicar

Alberto Arrè

Jonathan Wolf

Fatema Badri

Hannah Bernard

Joan Capdevila

William J. Bulsiewicz

Christopher D. Gardner

Jose M. Ordovas

George Hadjigeorgiou

Wendy L. Hall

Linda M. Delahanty

Nicola Segata

Tim D. Spector

Sarah E. Berry


Large variability exists in people’s responses to foods. However, the efficacy of personalized dietary advice for health remains understudied. We compared a personalized dietary program (PDP) versus general advice (control) on cardiometabolic health using a randomized clinical trial. The PDP used food characteristics, individual postprandial glucose and triglyceride (TG) responses to foods, microbiomes and health history, to produce personalized food scores in an 18-week app-based program. The control group received standard care dietary advice (US Department of Agriculture Guidelines for Americans, 2020–2025) using online resources, check-ins, video lessons and a leaflet. Primary outcomes were serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and TG concentrations at baseline and at 18 weeks. Participants (n = 347), aged 41–70 years and generally representative of the average US population, were randomized to the PDP (n = 177) or control (n = 170). Intention-to-treat analysis (n = 347) between groups showed significant reduction in TGs (mean difference = −0.13 mmol l−1; log-transformed 95% confidence interval = −0.07 to −0.01, P = 0.016). Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not significant. There were improvements in secondary outcomes, including body weight, waist circumference, HbA1c, diet quality and microbiome (beta-diversity) (P < 0.05), particularly in highly adherent PDP participants. However, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, C-peptide, apolipoprotein A1 and B, and postprandial TGs did not differ between groups. No serious intervention-related adverse events were reported. Following a personalized diet led to some improvements in cardiometabolic health compared to standard dietary advice.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 26, 2024
Online Publication Date May 8, 2024
Publication Date May 8, 2024
Deposit Date May 13, 2024
Publicly Available Date May 14, 2024
Journal Nature Medicine
Print ISSN 1078-8956
Electronic ISSN 1546-170X
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit


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