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The Cool Farm Biodiversity metric: an evidence-based online tool to report and improve management of biodiversity at farm scale

Crowther, Liam P.; Luke, Sarah H.; Arellano, Eduardo C.; McCormack, Caitlin G.; Ferreira, Vinina; Hillier, Jonathan; Heathcoate, Richard; Kloen, Henk; Oliveira-Reboucas, Patricia; Oliveira da Silva, Fabiana; Munoz-Saez, Andres; Rojas-Arevalo, Nadia; Zielonka, Natalia; Dicks, Lynn V.


Liam P. Crowther

Assistant Professor

Eduardo C. Arellano

Caitlin G. McCormack

Vinina Ferreira

Jonathan Hillier

Richard Heathcoate

Henk Kloen

Patricia Oliveira-Reboucas

Fabiana Oliveira da Silva

Andres Munoz-Saez

Nadia Rojas-Arevalo

Natalia Zielonka

Lynn V. Dicks


Halting biodiversity loss and achieving food security are both aims of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, but there is complex interplay between them. Agriculture drives biodiversity loss, but biodiversity provides benefits to agriculture. There is substantial potential to develop ‘win-win’ solutions for biodiversity and people within productive farmland, by boosting wildlife that can be supported, whilst maintaining yield and other services. To achieve this, farmers need to be able to assess the impacts of their management on biodiversity at farm scale. While suitable tools exist to drive improvement in biodiversity management, none incorporates evidence on the effectiveness of specific management practices. In this study we present the Cool Farm Biodiversity metric, which generates a farm-scale action-based biodiversity management assessment, scored using expert judgements and expert assessment of experimental evidence. The metric is designed to be biome-specific, so it responds to conservation aims, ecosystem processes and farming systems in particular biomes. To demonstrate that the metric is responsive to changes in farm management, we present an example of use on a large arable farm from the temperate forest biome.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 14, 2024
Online Publication Date Apr 4, 2024
Publication Date 2024-04
Deposit Date Mar 15, 2024
Publicly Available Date Apr 4, 2024
Journal Ecological Indicators
Print ISSN 1470-160X
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 161
Article Number 111897
Public URL
Publisher URL


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