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Extracellular vesicles in the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system diseases

Shaimardanova, Alisa A.; Solovyeva, Valeriya V.; Chulpanova, Daria S.; James, Victoria; Kitaeva, Kristina V.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

Authors

Alisa A. Shaimardanova

Valeriya V. Solovyeva

Daria S. Chulpanova

Victoria James

Kristina V. Kitaeva

Albert A. Rizvanov



Abstract

Extracellular vesicles, exosomes and microvesicles, play a fundamental role in the activity of the nervous system, participating in signal transmission between neurons and providing the interaction of central nervous system (CNS) with all body systems. In various pathological processes in CNS extracellular vesicles can help eliminate toxic agents from cells, but at the same time they provide the distribution of these agents into healthy cells. Thus, extracellular vesicle cargo varies on the functional state of the CNS, the analysis of EV molecular content contributes to the development of non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of many CNS diseases. Extracellular vesicles of neuronal origin can be isolated from various biological fluids due to their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Today, the diagnostic potential of almost all toxic proteins involved in nervous system disease pathogenesis, specifically α-synuclein, tau protein, SOD1, FUS, LRRK2 as well as some synaptic proteins, has been proven. Special attention is paid to extracellular RNAs mostly associated with EVs, which are important in the onset and development of many neurodegenerative diseases. Depending on parental cell type, extracellular vesicles may have different therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective, regenerative, anti-inflammatory, etc. Also, modern modification approaches allow loading EVs with specific molecules and changing their surface molecules to achieve targeting of various cells, including neurons. Due to nano size, biosafety, ability to cross the BBB, possibility of targeted delivery and the lack of an immune response, extracellular vesicles are a promising vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic substances for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and drug delivery to the brain. This review describes modern approaches of diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases using extracellular vesicles.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2020
Journal Neural Regeneration Research
Print ISSN 1673-5374
Electronic ISSN 1876-7958
Publisher Medknow Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 15
Issue 4
Pages 586=596
APA6 Citation Shaimardanova, A. A., Solovyeva, V. V., Chulpanova, D. S., James, V., Kitaeva, K. V., & Rizvanov, A. A. (2020). Extracellular vesicles in the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system diseases. Neural Regeneration Research, 15(4), 586=596. https://doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.266908
DOI https://doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.266908
Keywords Exosomes, Microvesicles, Extracellular vesicles, Neurodegenerative diseases, Cell-mediated therapy, Diagnosis, Biomarkers, Micro RNAs, Extracellular RNAs, CNS diseases
Publisher URL http://www.nrronline.org/article.asp?issn=1673-5374;year=2020;volume=15;issue=4;spage=586;epage=596;aulast=Shaimardanova

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