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Isosorbide Mononitrate and Cilostazol Treatment in Patients With Symptomatic Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The Lacunar Intervention Trial-2 (LACI-2) Randomized Clinical Trial

Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Woodhouse, Lisa J.; Mhlanga, Iris I.; Oatey, Katherine; Heye, Anna K.; Bamford, John; Cvoro, Vera; Doubal, Fergus N.; England, Timothy; Hassan, Ahamad; Montgomery, Alan; O’Brien, John T.; Roffe, Christine; Sprigg, Nikola; Werring, David J.; Bath, Philip M.


Joanna M. Wardlaw

Iris I. Mhlanga

Katherine Oatey

Anna K. Heye

John Bamford

Vera Cvoro

Fergus N. Doubal

Ahamad Hassan

Director Nottingham Clinical Trials Unit

John T. O’Brien

Christine Roffe

Professor of Stroke Medicine

David J. Werring

Stroke Association Professor of Stroke Medicine


Importance Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) is a common cause of stroke (lacunar stroke), is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment, and impairs mobility and mood but has no specific treatment.

Objective To test the feasibility, drug tolerability, safety, and effects of 1-year isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) and cilostazol treatment on vascular, functional, and cognitive outcomes in patients with lacunar stroke.

Design, Setting, and Participants The Lacunar Intervention Trial-2 (LACI-2) was an investigator-initiated, open-label, blinded end-point, randomized clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. The trial aimed to recruit 400 participants from 26 UK hospital stroke centers between February 5, 2018, and May 31, 2021, with 12-month follow-up. Included participants had clinical lacunar ischemic stroke, were independent, were aged older than 30 years, had compatible brain imaging findings, had capacity to consent, and had no contraindications to (or indications for) the study drugs. Data analysis was performed on August 12, 2022.

Interventions All patients received guideline stroke prevention treatment and were randomized to ISMN (40-60 mg/d), cilostazol (200 mg/d), ISMN-cilostazol (40-60 and 200 mg/d, respectively), or no study drug.

Main Outcomes The primary outcome was recruitment feasibility, including retention at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were safety (death), efficacy (composite of vascular events, dependence, cognition, and death), drug adherence, tolerability, recurrent stroke, dependence, cognitive impairment, quality of life (QOL), and hemorrhage.

Results Of the 400 participants planned for this trial, 363 (90.8%) were recruited. Their median age was 64 (IQR, 56.0-72.0) years; 251 (69.1%) were men. The median time between stroke and randomization was 79 (IQR, 27.0-244.0) days. A total of 358 patients (98.6%) were retained in the study at 12 months, with 257 of 272 (94.5%) taking 50% or more of the allocated drug. Compared with those participants not receiving that particular drug, neither ISMN (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.09]; P = .16) nor cilostazol (aHR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.57 to 1.05]; P = .10) alone reduced the composite outcome in 297 patients. Isosorbide mononitrate reduced recurrent stroke in 353 patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.23 [95% CI, 0.07 to 0.74]; P = .01) and cognitive impairment in 308 patients (aOR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.36 to 0.86]; P = .008). Cilostazol reduced dependence in 320 patients (aHR, 0.31 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.72]; P = .006). Combination ISMN-cilostazol reduced the composite (aHR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.36 to 0.92]; P = .02), dependence (aOR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.03 to 0.59]; P = .008), and any cognitive impairment (aOR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.23 to 0.85]; P = .02) and improved QOL (adjusted mean difference, 0.10 [95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17]; P = .005) in 153 patients. There were no safety concerns.

Conclusions and Relevance These results show that the LACI-2 trial was feasible and ISMN and cilostazol were well tolerated and safe. These agents may reduce recurrent stroke, dependence, and cognitive impairment after lacunar stroke, and they could prevent other adverse outcomes in cSVD. Therefore, both agents should be tested in large phase 3 trials.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT03451591


Wardlaw, J. M., Woodhouse, L. J., Mhlanga, I. I., Oatey, K., Heye, A. K., Bamford, J., …Bath, P. M. (2023). Isosorbide Mononitrate and Cilostazol Treatment in Patients With Symptomatic Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The Lacunar Intervention Trial-2 (LACI-2) Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurology, 80(7), 682-692.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 7, 2023
Online Publication Date May 24, 2023
Publication Date 2023-07
Deposit Date May 31, 2023
Publicly Available Date May 31, 2023
Journal JAMA Neurology
Print ISSN 2168-6149
Electronic ISSN 2168-6157
Publisher American Medical Association
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 80
Issue 7
Pages 682-692
Keywords Neurology (clinical)
Public URL
Publisher URL


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