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Evaluating Current Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation using an Integrated Computational Model of the Cardiopulmonary System

Daudre-Vignier, Clara; Bates, Declan G.; Scott, Timothy E.; Hardman, Jonathan G.; Laviola, Marianna


Clara Daudre-Vignier

Declan G. Bates

Timothy E. Scott

Jonathan G. Hardman


We aimed to use a high-fidelity computational model that captures key interactions between the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to investigate whether current CPR protocols could potentially be improved.
We developed and validated the computational model against available human data. We used a global optimisation algorithm to find CPR protocol parameters that optimise the outputs associated with return of spontaneous circulation in a cohort of 10 virtual subjects.
Compared with current protocols, myocardial tissue oxygen volume was more than 5 times higher, and cerebral tissue oxygen volume was nearly doubled, during optimised CPR. While the optimal maximal sternal displacement (5.5 cm) and compression ratio (51%) found using our model agreed with the current American Heart Association guidelines, the optimal chest compression rate was lower (67 compressions min−1). Similarly, the optimal ventilation strategy was more conservative than current guidelines, with an optimal minute ventilation of 1500 ml min−1 and inspired fraction of oxygen of 80%. The end compression force was the parameter with the largest impact on CO, followed by PEEP, the compression ratio and the CC rate.
Our results indicate that current CPR protocols could potentially be improved. Excessive ventilation could be detrimental to organ oxygenation during CPR, due to the negative haemodynamic effect of increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Particular attention should be given to the chest compression force to achieve satisfactory CO. Future clinical trials aimed at developing improved CPR protocols should explicitly consider interactions between chest compression and ventilation parameters.


Daudre-Vignier, C., Bates, D. G., Scott, T. E., Hardman, J. G., & Laviola, M. (2023). Evaluating Current Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation using an Integrated Computational Model of the Cardiopulmonary System. Resuscitation, 186, Article 109758.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 27, 2023
Online Publication Date Mar 3, 2023
Publication Date 2023-05
Deposit Date Mar 13, 2023
Publicly Available Date Mar 15, 2023
Journal Resuscitation
Print ISSN 0300-9572
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 186
Article Number 109758
Keywords Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine; Emergency Nursing; Emergency Medicine
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