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Do Enterprise Education Competitions have gendered outcomes amongst STEM Early Career Researchers?

Achtzehn, Sahattaya ; Treanor, Lorna; Amess, Kevin


Sahattaya Achtzehn

Professor of Managerial Economics


This article examines whether an enterprise education competition is gendered and so, may have unintended gendered outcomes amongst male and female STEM early-career researcher participants. Sex-based differences in entrepreneurial intentions (EI) and self-efficacy (ESE) are examined and, drawing on Social Cognitive Career Theory, we explore perceived gender-barriers to entrepreneurship and their influence upon ESE and EI. Employing pre-and post-survey data from 120 STEM ECRs participating in the competition, we undertook t-tests, difference-indifferences and hierarchical-regression analyses. We found no significant sex-based differences in EI and ESE. Participation in the competition had a significant impact upon perceived gender-barriers for both sexes; perceptions of stereotype threat and childcare-work conflict barriers were reduced for women post-participation, while their perceived lack of role models increased. Gender-barriers were found to have a significant negative influence on ESE and EI. We contribute to developing intention-based analysis beyond traditional gender-blind measures through incorporating gendered structural barriers which demonstrably influence EI.


Achtzehn, S., Treanor, L., & Amess, K. (2023). Do Enterprise Education Competitions have gendered outcomes amongst STEM Early Career Researchers?. International Small Business Journal,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 2, 2023
Online Publication Date Mar 25, 2023
Publication Date Mar 25, 2023
Deposit Date Feb 6, 2023
Publicly Available Date Mar 25, 2023
Journal International Small Business Journal
Print ISSN 0266-2426
Electronic ISSN 1741-2870
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Entrepreneurial Intention; Gender; STEM Women Entrepreneurs; Entrepreneurship Education
Public URL
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