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The incidence of Kawasaki disease using hospital admissions data for England 2006-2021

Odingo, Myron; Rutter, Megan; Bowley, Jonathan; Peach, Emily J.; Lanyon, Peter C.; Grainge, Matthew J.; Stillwell, Peter; McPhail, Sean; Bythell, Mary; Aston, Jeanette; Stevens, Sarah; McCormack, Rachael; Brogan, Paul; Pearce, Fiona A.

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Myron Odingo

Megan Rutter

Jonathan Bowley

Emily J. Peach

Peter C. Lanyon

Peter Stillwell

Sean McPhail

Mary Bythell

Jeanette Aston

Sarah Stevens

Rachael McCormack

Paul Brogan

Clinical Associate Professor


Objective: To describe the incidence of Kawasaki Disease (kDa) between 2006 and 2021 in England. Methods: We identified all cases in hospital episode statistics with an ICD-10 diagnostic code M303 (for kDa) between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2021. We validated 83 diagnoses using hospital medical records and found >97% accuracy. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using Poisson regression and assessed the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and index of multiple deprivation (IMD). We used Office for National Statistics population estimates for England as the denominator. Results: We identified a total of 5908 cases of kDa in all children under the age of 16 (mean age 3.8, s.d.=3.2, 95% CI: 3.7, 3.9). Incidence in children aged <5 years was 8.9 (95% CI: 8.6, 9.2)/100 000 person-years; in children aged 5-9, 2.4 (95% CI: 2.3, 2.6)/100 000 person-years; and in children aged 10-15, 0.6 (95% CI: 0.6, 0.7). Male: female ratio was 1.5: 1. Incidence was higher among non-White than White ethnicities [adjusted IRR 2.1 (2.0-2.2) for Asian, 3.0 (2.8-3.3) for Black and 4.5 (4.2-4.8) for other ethnicities]. The incidence increased with socioeconomic deprivation; the adjusted IRR of the least deprived IMD quintile compared with the most deprived quintile was 0.81 (0.77-0.84). Conclusions: Incidence rates of kDa derived from hospital admission data in England were higher than in studies relying on clinician reporting. We confirm previous findings on the influence of sex and ethnicity on kDa incidence and observe that there was a higher incidence of kDa within more deprived socioeconomic groups.


Odingo, M., Rutter, M., Bowley, J., Peach, E. J., Lanyon, P. C., Grainge, M. J., …Pearce, F. A. (2023). The incidence of Kawasaki disease using hospital admissions data for England 2006-2021. Rheumatology, 62(9), 3117–3125.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 24, 2023
Online Publication Date Jan 30, 2023
Publication Date 2023-09
Deposit Date Feb 9, 2023
Publicly Available Date Feb 14, 2023
Journal Rheumatology
Print ISSN 1462-0324
Electronic ISSN 1462-0332
Publisher Oxford University Press (OUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 62
Issue 9
Pages 3117–3125
Keywords cardiovascular, Kawasaki disease, epidemiology, vasculitis, paediatric
Public URL
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